Microsoft's position on MySQL

While Oracle provides no official information they are planning on improving MySQL and using as a product to compete with Microsoft SQL Server, it is rather obvious from what little information you can glean from public announcements this is a clear business goal.

Microsoft however are publicly seeking a Senior Product Manager, MySQL Compete in the Marketing department. Your goal is nothing technical, it’s all PR to dispel MySQL as a viable product. I quote “you will equip field and partners to win in competitive engagements against MySQL, and you will influence market perception in favor of Microsoft technologies.” Here is the Full job description for those that want an amusing read.

This information came from an Oracle colleague of mine based in Asia.

MySQL Best Practices for DBAs and Developers

This is one of the MySQL presentations I’m doing on the OTN LAD Tour in South America, starting today in Lima, Peru.

MySQL Best Practices for DBAs and Developers

Learn the right techniques to maximize your investment in MySQL by knowing the best practices for DBAs and Developers. Understand what subtle differences between MySQL and other RDBMS products are essential to understand in order to maximize the benefits and strengths of MySQL. We will be covering areas including the minimum MySQL configuration, ideal SQL, MySQL security and schema optimizations.

  • MySQL Configuration default settings including SQL_MODE
  • Documenting, formatting and future proofing your SQL
  • Developing and reviewing all SQL paths
  • MySQL physical and user security
  • The best schema optimizations
  • Essential Monitoring and Instrumentation
  • The locking essentials for different storage engines
  • Managing your Disk I/O with optimal storage and access

MySQL South America tour

DISCLAIMER: This post contains no technical MySQL content however it is good news for the MySQL Community.

MySQL content will be included for the first time with the LAOUC (Latin American Oracle Usergroups Council) Oracle tour that is being organized in conjunction with OTN (Oracle Technology Network).

I have no idea what MySQL user communities are in South America however if you live in any of the following cities, please feel free to contact me. I am happy to have additional discussion regarding MySQL or help in some way if there is interest in any cities.

This seven country tour includes:

  • Oct 12 – Lima, Peru
  • Oct 14 – Santiago, Chile
  • Oct 16 – Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Oct 18 – São Paulo, Brazil
  • Oct 20 – Bogota, Colombia
  • Oct 22 – Quito, Ecuador
  • Oct 25 – San Jose, Costa Rica

More details on the specific locations in each city will be available when finalized.

I would be very happy if anybody wants to translate this to Spanish or Portuguese for readers in South America.


View OTN Latin America in a larger map

Upcoming MySQL Conferences

Unlike previous years when the number of conferences with MySQL content diminishes after the O’Reilly MySQL and OSCON conferences (Open SQL Camp excluded), this year has a lot on offer.

This month:

Upcoming next month in September:

  • MySQL Sunday at Oracle Open World on September 18 in San Francisco includes 4 tracks and around 15 quality speakers. (Big numbers of attendees also rumored but yet unconfirmed).
  • The inaugural Surge Scalability conference in Baltimore will include presentations by myself and Baron Schwartz (Percona being sponsors) as well as talks from other popular sites using MySQL.

If your in SF for the MySQL Sunday you may also want to come for the SF MySQL Meetup on the preceeding Thursday night where I’ll be giving my talk on “Common MySQL Scalability problems, and how to fix them”.

In October:

  • Open SQL Camp in Boston from Friday, Oct 15th in the evening, ending Sunday Oct 17th

Europeans will be busy in November where you will find dedicated MySQL tracks with multiple speakers at DOAG and UKOUG. Other MySQL talks can be found at SAPO Codebits 2010 and BGOUG.

And for South America, stay tuned. October will be your month!

There is also a great event calendar maintained by the MySQL community team on the Forge.

Will Oracle kill MySQL?

I get asked this question often. It was mentioned again recently in a NYTECH executive breakfast with RedHat CIO Lee Congdon.

The short answer is No.

There is clear evidence that in the short to medium term Oracle will continue to promote and enhance MySQL. Some of these indicators include:

It is clear from these sources that Oracle intends to incorporate MySQL into Oracle Backup and Security Vault products. Both a practical and necessary step. There is also a clear mention of focusing on the Microsoft platform, a clear indicator that SQL Server is in their sights without actually saying it.

What is unknown is exact how and when features will be implemented. Also important is how much these may cost the end user. Oracle is in the business of selling, now an entire H/W and S/W stack. They also have a complicated pricing model of different components with product offerings. I assume this will continue. There are already two indications, InnoDBbackup included for Enterprise Backup (from April Keynote) and 5.1 enterprise split. (Note: while this split may have existed prior to Oracle, it is now more clearly obvious).

MySQL can never be seen as drawing away from any Oracle sales of the core entry level database product. It is likely Oracle will provide a SQL Syntax compatibility layer for MySQL within 2 years, however it will I’m sure be a commercial add-on. Likewise, I would suspect a PL/SQL lite layer within 5 years, but again at a significant cost to offset the potential loss of sales in the low end of the server market. There continues to be active development in the MySQL Enterprise Monitor, MySQL Workbench and MySQL Connectors which is all excellent news for users.

Moving forward, how long will this ancillary development of free tools continue? What will happen to the commercial storage engine, OEM and licensing model after the 5 year commitment? How will the MySQL ecosystem survive.? There is active development in Percona, MariaDB and Drizzle forks, however unless all players that want to provide a close MySQL compatible solution work together, progress will continue to be a disappointing disjointed approach. The 2011 conference season will also see a clear line with competing MySQL conferences in April scheduled at the same time, the O’Reilly MySQL conference in Santa Clara California and the Oracle supported(*) Collaborate 2011 in Orlando, Florida.

I have a number of predictions on what Oracle ME MySQL may look like in 5 years however this is a topic for a personal discussion.

Installing WordPress on Oracle Enterprise Linux LAMP stack

A company blog can be easily configured in under 10 minutes using WordPress, a popular open source LAMP product that runs a reported 12+ million blogs including those found at CNN, NY Times, Wall Street Journal (WSJ), ZDNet, MTV, People Magazine, Playstation and eBay.

A company blog is a great way for the dissemination of information to your user base as well as enabling a means of user feedback via comments.

The following steps show you how to download, configure and get your WordPress blog operational.

Software Pre-Requisites

Software Installation

su -
cd /tmp
wget  http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
cd /var/www/html
tar xfz /tmp/latest.tar.gz
mv wordpress blog

You can now visit http://localhost/blog and you will be presented with a message of an un-configured WordPress environment. You can streamline the MySQL portion of this configuration with the following commands.

cd blog
sed -e "s/database_name_here/blog/;s/username_here/blog_user/;s/password_here/sakila/" wp-config-sample.php > wp-config.php
mysql -uroot -p -e "CREATE SCHEMA blog"
mysql -uroot -p -e "CREATE USER blog_user @localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'sakila'"
mysql -uroot -p -e "GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE on blog.* TO blog_user@localhost"

Returning now to http://localhost/blog you simply only need to specify a Title, password and email address, click Save and your Blog at http://localhost/blog is complete and operational.



MySQL Structures

Looking at the tables that are created by the installation process:

$ mysql -ublog_user -psakila blog

mysql> show tables;
+-----------------------+
| Tables_in_blog        |
+-----------------------+
| wp_commentmeta        |
| wp_comments           |
| wp_links              |
| wp_options            |
| wp_postmeta           |
| wp_posts              |
| wp_term_relationships |
| wp_term_taxonomy      |
| wp_terms              |
| wp_usermeta           |
| wp_users              |
+-----------------------+
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT table_name,engine,table_rows FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = 'blog';
+-----------------------+--------+------------+
| table_name            | engine | table_rows |
+-----------------------+--------+------------+
| wp_commentmeta        | MyISAM |          0 |
| wp_comments           | MyISAM |          1 |
| wp_links              | MyISAM |          7 |
| wp_options            | MyISAM |        109 |
| wp_postmeta           | MyISAM |          1 |
| wp_posts              | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_term_relationships | MyISAM |          8 |
| wp_term_taxonomy      | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_terms              | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_usermeta           | MyISAM |         13 |
| wp_users              | MyISAM |          1 |
+-----------------------+--------+------------+
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Additional References

Short URL for this post rb42.com/oel-install-wordpress

Reviewing your MySQL installation on Oracle Enterprise Linux

After successfully Installing MySQL, let us take a look at an operational MySQL instance on your Oracle Enterprise Linux server.

User Management

By default there will be a new mysql user and group created. This user is used to run the mysqld process is generally not used for any other purpose.

$ grep mysql /etc/{passwd,shadow,group}
/etc/passwd:mysql:x:27:27:MySQL Server:/var/lib/mysql:/bin/bash
/etc/shadow:mysql:!!:14796::::::
/etc/group:mysql:x:27:

Binaries

MySQL binaries are found in /usr/bin.

$ ls -l /usr/bin/mysql*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  314568 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  110776 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysqlaccess
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   35144 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqladmin
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  112944 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlbinlog
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    7632 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlbug
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   30576 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlcheck
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    7632 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3670 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_convert_table_format
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   22522 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqld_multi
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13073 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   75184 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqldump
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    6356 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqldumpslow
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   11648 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_explain_log
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3245 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysql_find_rows
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root     483 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_fix_extensions
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    5834 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_fix_privilege_tables
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   31431 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqlhotcopy
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   26160 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlimport
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13659 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_install_db
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    6586 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   16687 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_setpermission
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   28224 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlshow
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   14473 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysql_tableinfo
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  158192 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltest
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   42360 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanager
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   15464 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanagerc
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13448 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanager-pwgen
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1312064 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_tzinfo_to_sql
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   54160 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_upgrade
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    5753 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_upgrade_shell
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  112136 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_waitpid
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3818 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_zap

The mysqld binary is found in /usr/libexec

Error Log

The MySQL error log is found in /var/log/mysqld.log

The content after an initial start of MySQL will look similar to:

cat /var/log/mysqld.log
100705 22:09:03  mysqld started
InnoDB: The first specified data file ./ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Setting file ./ibdata1 size to 10 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Log file ./ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile0 size to 5 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Log file ./ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 5 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: Foreign key constraint system tables created
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Started; log sequence number 0 0
100705 22:09:03 [Note] /usr/libexec/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '5.0.77'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  Source distribution

On the first invocation of MySQL, the InnoDB storage engine will create a default tablespace and redo logs. This is the majority of messages in the above log.

Processes

MySQL is a multi-threaded single process called mysqld. A second wrapper process mysqld_safe is generally found. This process logs stderr and also will restart the mysqld process if not found.

ps -ef | grep mysql
root     14733     1  0 Jul05 pts/1    00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --user=mysql
mysql    14783 14733  0 Jul05 pts/1    00:00:10 /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --user=mysql --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --skip-external-locking --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

Memory Usage

MySQL can have a very low memory footprint. By default the mysqld process has a 175M virtual size.

$ ps -eopid,fname,rss,vsz,user,command | grep -e "RSS" -e "mysql"
  PID COMMAND    RSS    VSZ USER     COMMAND
14275 grep       720  61136 root     grep -e RSS -e mysql
14733 mysqld_s  1192  63820 root     /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --user=mysql
14783 mysqld   27004 179496 mysql    /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --user=mysql --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --skip-external-locking --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

Disk Usage

The MySQL data files will be stored on a default installation in /var/lib/mysql

$ du -sh /var/lib/mysql
22M     /var/lib/mysql

$ ls -ld /var/lib/mysql
drwxr-xr-x 4 mysql mysql 4096 Jul 13 11:50 /var/lib/mysql

$ ls -l /var/lib/mysql
total 20552
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 10485760 Jul  5 22:09 ibdata1
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  5242880 Jul  5 22:09 ib_logfile0
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  5242880 Jul  5 22:09 ib_logfile1
drwx------ 2 mysql mysql     4096 Jul  5 22:09 mysql
srwxrwxrwx 1 mysql mysql        0 Jul  5 22:09 mysql.sock

The MySQL data directory includes the InnoDB tablespace datafile (ibdata1), redo logs (ib_logfile?), and the mysql directory corresponding to the mysql schema containing instance meta data.

This directory also contains the socket file, which is actually a poor location as this opens the security of this directory for world access. This will be discussed later in securing your installation.

Running MySQL

The best means of controlling the starting and stopping of mysql is to use the provided service init script mysqld

$ ls -l /etc/init.d/mysqld
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4286 Feb 16 17:45 /etc/init.d/mysqld

Configuration

For OEL the MySQL configuration can be found in /etc.
NOTE: MySQL can use multiple configuration files.

$ ls -l /etc/my.cnf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 441 Feb 16 14:39 /etc/my.cnf

MySQL includes a minimalistic configuration file by default. The configuration file format is variable=value pairs for a given number of different sections, in this file [mysqld] and [mysqld_safe].

$ cat /etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
user=mysql
# Default to using old password format for compatibility with mysql 3.x
# clients (those using the mysqlclient10 compatibility package).
old_passwords=1

# Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks;
# to do so, uncomment this line:
# symbolic-links=0

[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log
pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

Audit

A full audit of all MySQL related files.

find / -name "*mysql*"
/etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S64mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S64mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K36mysqld
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K36mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S64mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K36mysqld
/etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S64mysqld
/etc/php.d/pdo_mysql.ini
/etc/php.d/mysql.ini
/etc/php.d/mysqli.ini
/etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql-x86_64.conf
/etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql-i386.conf
/usr/lib64/mysql
/usr/lib64/mysql/mysqlbug
/usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient_r.so.15.0.0
/usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.15
/usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient_r.so.15
/usr/lib64/mysql/mysql_config
/usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.15.0.0
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/Bundle/DBD/mysql.pm
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/auto/DBD/mysql
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/DBD/mysql
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/DBD/mysql.pm
/usr/lib64/php/modules/mysql.so
/usr/lib64/php/modules/pdo_mysql.so
/usr/lib64/php/modules/mysqli.so
/usr/libexec/mysqld
/usr/libexec/mysqlmanager
/usr/share/mysql
/usr/share/mysql/mysql_system_tables.sql
/usr/share/mysql/mysql_system_tables_data.sql
/usr/share/mysql/mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql
/usr/share/mysql/mysql_test_data_timezone.sql
/usr/share/vim/vim70/syntax/mysql.vim
/usr/share/man/man8/mysqld.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/mysqlmanager.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql.server.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_tableinfo.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_upgrade.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlaccess.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_waitpid.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_fix_extensions.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlman.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlbinlog.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_install_db.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_tzinfo_to_sql.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_secure_installation.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqld_safe.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqladmin.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlimport.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_zap.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/msql2mysql.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlshow.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqldump.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/safe_mysqld.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_explain_log.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_config.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlbug.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqld_multi.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_setpermission.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlhotcopy.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_find_rows.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_convert_table_format.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysql_fix_privilege_tables.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqldumpslow.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqltest.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlcheck.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man3/Bundle::DBD::mysql.3pm.gz
/usr/share/man/man3/DBD::mysql.3pm.gz
/usr/share/man/man3/DBD::mysql::INSTALL.3pm.gz
/usr/share/doc/mysql-server-5.0.77
/usr/share/doc/mysql-5.0.77
/usr/share/doc/selinux-policy-2.4.6/html/services_mysql.html
/usr/share/pixmaps/comps/mysql.png
/usr/share/info/mysql.info.gz
/usr/share/selinux/devel/include/services/mysql.if
/usr/bin/mysql_fix_extensions
/usr/bin/mysql
/usr/bin/mysqltestmanager
/usr/bin/mysqldumpslow
/usr/bin/mysql_upgrade_shell
/usr/bin/mysql_convert_table_format
/usr/bin/mysqlimport
/usr/bin/mysqldump
/usr/bin/mysqltestmanager-pwgen
/usr/bin/mysql_tzinfo_to_sql
/usr/bin/mysqlbug
/usr/bin/mysqlhotcopy
/usr/bin/mysqlaccess
/usr/bin/mysqltest
/usr/bin/mysqladmin
/usr/bin/mysql_upgrade
/usr/bin/mysqltestmanagerc
/usr/bin/mysqld_safe
/usr/bin/mysql_zap
/usr/bin/mysql_waitpid
/usr/bin/msql2mysql
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation
/usr/bin/mysql_fix_privilege_tables
/usr/bin/mysqlshow
/usr/bin/mysql_config
/usr/bin/mysql_setpermission
/usr/bin/mysql_tableinfo
/usr/bin/mysql_find_rows
/usr/bin/mysqld_multi
/usr/bin/mysqlcheck
/usr/bin/mysqlbinlog
/usr/bin/mysql_install_db
/usr/bin/mysql_explain_log
/usr/lib/mysql
/usr/lib/mysql/mysqlbug
/usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient_r.so.15.0.0
/usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.15
/usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient_r.so.15
/usr/lib/mysql/mysql_config
/usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.15.0.0
/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/sos/plugins/mysql.pyo
/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/sos/plugins/mysql.pyc
/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/sos/plugins/mysql.py
/var/log/mysqld.log
/var/run/mysqld
/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
/var/lock/subsys/mysqld
/var/lib/mysql
/var/lib/mysql/mysql
/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
/root/.mysql_history
/selinux/booleans/mysqld_disable_trans
/selinux/booleans/allow_user_mysql_connect

Installing a LAMP stack on Oracle Enterprise Linux

After successfully installing MySQL on Oracle Enterprise Linux installing a LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) stack can also be performed with a single command:

$ yum install -y httpd php php-mysql
# Start the Apache Httpd Process
$ /etc/init.d/httpd start

To test and confirm Apache Httpd and PHP, we can use the CLI browser lynx:

$ yum install -y lynx
$ echo "<? phpinfo() ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php
$ lynx http://localhost/phpinfo.php

If successful, you will find a web page that contains the following.

phpinfo() (p1 of 31)

   PHP Logo

PHP Version 5.1.6

   System Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.18-164.el5 #1 SMP Thu Sep 3 04:15:13
   EDT 2009 x86_64
   Build Date Feb 11 2010 19:07:36
   Configure   Command   './configure'  '--build=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'
   '--host=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'    '--target=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'
   '--program-prefix=''--prefix=/usr''--exec-prefix=/usr''--bindir=/usr/bin'
   '--sbindir=/usr/sbin'    '--sysconfdir=/etc'    '--datadir=/usr/share'
   '--includedir=/usr/include'                      '--libdir=/usr/lib64'
   '--libexecdir=/usr/libexec'                     '--localstatedir=/var'
   '--sharedstatedir=/usr/com'                  '--mandir=/usr/share/man'
   '--infodir=/usr/share/info'             '--cache-file=../config.cache'
   '--with-libdir=lib64'                   '--with-config-file-path=/etc'

It is important to note that PHP is also a standalone scripting language that doesn’t require a web browser. You can use PHP on the command line, for example:

$ php --version
PHP 5.1.6 (cli) (built: Feb 11 2010 19:06:40)
Copyright (c) 1997-2006 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.1.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2006 Zend Technologies

$ echo "<?phpinfo()?>" | php | grep -i mysql
Configure Command =>  './configure' '--build=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--host=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--target=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--program-prefix=' '--prefix=/usr' '--exec-prefix=/usr' '--bindir=/usr/bin' '--sbindir=/usr/sbin' '--sysconfdir=/etc' '--datadir=/usr/share' '--includedir=/usr/include' '--libdir=/usr/lib64' '--libexecdir=/usr/libexec' '--localstatedir=/var' '--sharedstatedir=/usr/com' '--mandir=/usr/share/man' '--infodir=/usr/share/info' '--cache-file=../config.cache' '--with-libdir=lib64' '--with-config-file-path=/etc' '--with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d' '--disable-debug' '--with-pic' '--disable-rpath' '--without-pear' '--with-bz2' '--with-curl' '--with-exec-dir=/usr/bin' '--with-freetype-dir=/usr' '--with-png-dir=/usr' '--enable-gd-native-ttf' '--without-gdbm' '--with-gettext' '--with-gmp' '--with-iconv' '--with-jpeg-dir=/usr' '--with-openssl' '--with-png' '--with-pspell' '--with-expat-dir=/usr' '--with-pcre-regex=/usr' '--with-zlib' '--with-layout=GNU' '--enable-exif' '--enable-ftp' '--enable-magic-quotes' '--enable-sockets' '--enable-sysvsem' '--enable-sysvshm' '--enable-sysvmsg' '--enable-track-vars' '--enable-trans-sid' '--enable-yp' '--enable-wddx' '--with-kerberos' '--enable-ucd-snmp-hack' '--with-unixODBC=shared,/usr' '--enable-memory-limit' '--enable-shmop' '--enable-calendar' '--enable-dbx' '--enable-dio' '--with-mime-magic=/usr/share/file/magic.mime' '--without-sqlite' '--with-libxml-dir=/usr' '--with-xml' '--with-system-tzdata' '--enable-force-cgi-redirect' '--enable-pcntl' '--with-imap=shared' '--with-imap-ssl' '--enable-mbstring=shared' '--enable-mbstr-enc-trans' '--enable-mbregex' '--with-ncurses=shared' '--with-gd=shared' '--enable-bcmath=shared' '--enable-dba=shared' '--with-db4=/usr' '--with-xmlrpc=shared' '--with-ldap=shared' '--with-ldap-sasl' '--with-mysql=shared,/usr' '--with-mysqli=shared,/usr/lib64/mysql/mysql_config' '--enable-dom=shared' '--with-dom-xslt=/usr' '--with-dom-exslt=/usr' '--with-pgsql=shared' '--with-snmp=shared,/usr' '--enable-soap=shared' '--with-xsl=shared,/usr' '--enable-xmlreader=shared' '--enable-xmlwriter=shared' '--enable-fastcgi' '--enable-pdo=shared' '--with-pdo-odbc=shared,unixODBC,/usr' '--with-pdo-mysql=shared,/usr/lib64/mysql/mysql_config' '--with-pdo-pgsql=shared,/usr' '--with-pdo-sqlite=shared,/usr' '--enable-dbase=shared'
/etc/php.d/mysql.ini,
/etc/php.d/mysqli.ini,
/etc/php.d/pdo_mysql.ini,
mysql
MySQL Support => enabled
MYSQL_MODULE_TYPE => external
MYSQL_SOCKET => /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
MYSQL_INCLUDE => -I/usr/include/mysql
MYSQL_LIBS => -L/usr/lib64/mysql -lmysqlclient
mysql.allow_persistent => On => On
mysql.connect_timeout => 60 => 60
mysql.default_host => no value => no value
mysql.default_password => no value => no value
mysql.default_port => no value => no value
mysql.default_socket => no value => no value
mysql.default_user => no value => no value
mysql.max_links => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysql.max_persistent => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysql.trace_mode => Off => Off
mysqli
MysqlI Support => enabled
MYSQLI_SOCKET => /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
mysqli.default_host => no value => no value
mysqli.default_port => 3306 => 3306
mysqli.default_pw => no value => no value
mysqli.default_socket => no value => no value
mysqli.default_user => no value => no value
mysqli.max_links => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysqli.reconnect => Off => Off
PDO drivers => mysql, sqlite
pdo_mysql
PDO Driver for MySQL, client library version => 5.0.77

Short URL: rb42.com/oel-install-lamp

Installing MySQL on Oracle Enterprise Linux

One of the significant benefits of MySQL is it’s ease of use. Generally already installed on most Linux systems, MySQL can be installed by a single command if not yet present. On Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.4 you can use the following commands to check for MySQL, configure your yum repository and install MySQL.

# Check if already installed
$ rpm -qa | grep -i mysql

# Configure yum repository on new server
$ su -
$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el5.repo
$ sed -e "s/enabled=0/enabled=1/" public-yum-el5.repo > /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-el5.repo

# Install MySQL
$ yum install -y mysql-server mysql

# Start and test MySQL Instance
$ /etc/init.d/mysqld start
$ mysql -uroot -e "SELECT VERSION()"

+-----------+
| VERSION() |
+-----------+
| 5.0.77    |
+-----------+

You can find more information about the Oracle public yum repository at http://public-yum.oracle.com You will also note that the version installed is 5.0. The current GA version of MySQL is 5.1, however Red Hat is notorious for taking time to update repositories more regularly. You can always use more current rpm files available at the MySQL downloads page.

If you want MySQL to be configured to automatically start and stop on your server you need to run the following command.

$ chkconfig mysqld on
$ chkconfig --list mysqld
mysqld          0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

You can link to this post with the short url rb42.com/oel-install-mysql

Related Posts

Speaking at Oracle Open World 2010


I will be one of 18 MySQL speakers at Oracle Open World 2010 at the first ever MySQL Sunday. With a great diversity of technical, community and product talks this will be a great opportunity to get a cross section of MySQL content. Combined with Java One, this year’s Oracle Open World will include a lot more opportunity of technical and developer content then the more regular marketing material.

As the program chair for the first dedicated MySQL track at last month’s ODTUG Kaleidoscope 2010 our MySQL community now includes a larger number of target people. From the Oracle community come many highly technical and skilled resources, some with an understanding or appreciation of MySQL and many that are new to MySQL.

This is a great opportunity to share our knowledge and experience with MySQL.

References

Upcoming Conferences with dedicated MySQL content

We recently held a dedicated MySQL Track at ODTUG Kaleidoscope 2010 conference for 4 days. This is the first of many Oracle events that will begin to include dedicated MySQL content.

If your attending OSCON 2010 in the next few weeks you will see a number of MySQL presentations.

MySQL will be represented at Open World 2010 in September with MySQL Sunday. Giuseppe has created a great one page summary of speakers. This event is described as technical sessions, an un-conference and an fireside chat with Edward Screven. I’ve seen tickets listed at $50 or $75 for the day.

Open SQL Camp will be held in Germany in August, and Boston in October. This is a great FREE event that includes technical content not just on MySQL but other open source databases and data stores.

You will also find dedicated MySQL tracks in Europe at the German Oracle Users Group (DOAG) conference in November and the United Kingdom Oracle Users Group (UKOUG) in November that I am planning on attending.

In 2011 there is already a lineup of events that will all contain multiple tracks of MySQL content.

For the MySQL community the introduction of various large Oracle conferences may be confusing. From my perspective I describe the big three as.

  • Oracle Open World is targeted towards marketing. This includes product announcements, case studies and first class events.
  • Collaborate is targeted towards deployment and includes 3 different user groups, the IOUG representing the Oracle Database, the Oracle Applications User Group, and the Quest Group.
  • ODTUG Kaleidoscope is targeted towards development. This includes the tools and technologies for developers and DBA’s to do your job.

Having just attended Kaleidoscope 2010, and being a relative unknown I left with a great impression of an open, technical and welcoming event. There was a great atmosphere, great events with excellent food for breakfast, lunch and dinner and I now have a long list of new friends. This conference very much reflected being part of a greater extended family, the experience I have enjoyed at previous MySQL conferences. I’ve already committed to being involved next year.

Oracle resources for the MySQL Community

While I have spent a lot of time recently helping the MySQL community interact with and integrate with various Oracle User Groups including ODTUG, IOUG, NoCOUG, NYOUG, DAOG I thought I’d share some resources for the MySQL Community that wanted to know more about Oracle.

The Oracle family of products is huge. You only have to look at the acquisitions via Wikipedia to get an idea. The first thing is to narrow your search, e.g. Database, APEX, Middleware, BI, Hyperion, Financials, development via Java, PHP or Oracle Forms etc.

While Oracle is a commercial product you can download all software for FREE via Oracle Technology Network. There is also documentation, forums, blogs and events.

Some Oracle bloggers I have already been reading however I’m expanding my list. People you may want to consider include:

Cary Millsap,Lewis Cunningham, Debra Lilley, Dimitri Gielis,Duncan Mills, Edward Roske, Mark Rittman, Scott Spendolini, Tim Tow, Tom Kyte

If you want a comparison of the Oracle and MySQL community, be sure to also check out Sheeri Cabral’s keynote address at the 2010 MySQL User Conference for reference.

I'll have a MySQL shot to go!

Wednesday night of the MySQL track of ODTUG Kaleidoscope will include an evening with Last Comic Standing comedian, John Heffron. It should be great way to unwind after day 3 of the conference. Black vodka anybody.

Check out the MySQL Schedule for more information of presentations for the 4 days. More details is also available here.

Finalized speakers list for Kaleidoscope conference

We have secured approval for our final two speakers and now have a full schedule for the 4 day MySQL track at ODTUG Kaleidoscope conference. The conference is in Washington DC from Monday June 28th to Thursday July 1st. Welcome to Josh Sled and Craig Sylvester that will be joining our existing list of speakers.

This conference will include 19 sessions of dedicated MySQL content from Monday thru Thursday by well qualified MySQL community members, as well a forums discussion and reception on Monday night. You don’t need to be an Oracle developer to get the benefit of this conference. We will offering a discount code for MySQL attendees in the upcoming days.

If you are in the DC area, the Monday night forum (known as the sundown sessions) as well as the reception are FREE for the MySQL community. This was a great jesture of the Oracle Developer Tools Users Group to openly invite the MySQL community to meet and interact. We ask that you register your name and email for confirmation of numbers.

Speakers List

  • Philip Antoniades, Oracle/MySQL
  • Ronald Bradford, 42SQL
  • Sheeri K. Cabral, The Pythian Group
  • Laine Campbell, PalominoDB
  • Patrick Galbraith, Northscale
  • Sarah Novotny, Blue Gecko
  • Padraig O’Sullivan, Akiba Technologies Inc.
  • Jay Pipes, Rackspace Cloud
  • Dossy Shiobara, Panoptic.com
  • Josh Sled, Oracle/MySQL
  • Craig Sylvester, Oracle/MySQL
  • Matt Yonkovit, Percona

References

Free MySQL Event in Washington DC

As the program chair for the recently announced MySQL Track at the ODTUG Kaleidoscope conference located in Washington DC we are also looking into an associated free community event for MySQL locals in addition to a dedicated track for 4 days.

Please let us know your name and email via the form at http://ronaldbradford.com/ODTUG/free-event/ so we can provide more details in the coming week as we try to finalize logistics.

Registration will be necessary for attendance however for now we just want to know who is local so we can provide more details soon!

Updated. Full details of the free Monday night sundown sessions and reception can be found at MySQL track with free event at Kaleidoscope 2010

The MySQL community impacting the Oracle community

I’m happy to announce that the MySQL community has been given the opportunity to speak at the upcoming Oracle Developer Tools User Group (ODTUG) Kaleidoscope conference in Washington DC. We will be releasing more details this week of the MySQL presentations and topics and we are finalizing details of possible options to include the local MySQL community during the event.

The various independent Oracle User Groups in North America that embody “by the community and for the community” have been very positive with including the MySQL community. With the Sun/MySQL now Oracle community team of Giuseppe Maxia, Lenz Grimmer, Kaj Arnö and Oracle ACE Directors Sheeri K Cabral and myself we have been happy with the openness and willingness to include us in the larger Oracle ecosystem.

We’ll announce the schedule when we finalize it, but we have had a great response from an impressive list of speakers.

Additional References

2010 MySQL Conference Presentations

I have uploaded my three presentations from the 2010 MySQL Users Conference in Santa Clara, California which was my 5th consecutive year appearing as a speaker.

A full history of my MySQL presentations can be found on the Presenting page.

My acceptance with Oracle as ACE Director

I hinted last week of my acceptance with Oracle before the formal announcement this week at the MySQL Users Conference, not for a job but as Oracle ACE Director. In today’s State of the MySQL Community keynote by Kaj Arnö I was one of the first three MySQL nominees that are now part of this program.

What exactly is an ACE Director? Using the description from the Oracle website.

Oracle ACEs and Oracle ACE Directors are known for their strong credentials as Oracle community enthusiasts and advocates, with candidates nominated by anyone in the Oracle Technology and Applications communities. The baseline requirements are the same for both designations; however, Oracle ACE Directors work more closely and formally with Oracle in terms of their community activity.

What does this mean to me?

As a significant contributor to the community I now have the opportunity to continue as well as to contribute to how Oracle continues to interact, promote and involve the MySQL community. As stewards our role as an Oracle ACE Director is to be actively involved. I look forward to the challenge to help shape and improve our State of the MySQL Community.

News and References
Welcome, Oracle ACE Directors for MySQL

My acceptance with Oracle

There have been a number of April fools jokes today so I thought I’d add my own to the list. While this sounds unexpected it’s actually no joke.

I just accepted a position with Oracle yesterday but I can’t say any more about the details until the MySQL users conference in a few weeks.

A special thanks to Lenz, Kaj & Giuseppe that championed everything to make it all happen, I really didn’t have to do anything other then accept.

Don't Assume – Per Session Buffers

MySQL has a number of global buffers, i.e. your SGA. There are also a number of per session/thread buffers that combined with other memory usage constitutes an unbounded PGA. One of the most common errors in mis-configured MySQL environments is the setting of the 4 primary per session buffers thinking they are global buffers.

Global buffers include:

    The four important per session buffers are:

    I have seen people see these values > 5M. The defaults range from 128K to 256K. My advice for any values above 256K is simple. What proof do you have this works better? When nothing is forthcoming, the first move is to revert to defaults or a maximum of 256K for some benchmarkable results. The primary reason for this is MySQL internally as quoted by Monty Taylor – for values > 256K, it uses mmap() instead of malloc() for memory allocation.

    These are not all the per session buffers you need to be aware of. Others include thread_stack, max_allowed_packet,binlog_cache_size and most importantly max_connections.

    MySQL also uses memory in other areas most noticeably in internal temporary tables and MEMORY based tables.

    As I mentioned, there is no bound for the total process memory allocation for MySQL, so some incorrectly configured variables can easily blow your memory usage.

    References

    About “Don’t Assume”

    “Don’t Assume” is a series of posts to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate the subtle differences and unique characteristics of the MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle. These points as essential to operate MySQL effectively in a production environment and avoid any loss of data or availability.

    For more posts in this series be sure to follow the mysql4oracledba tag and also watch out for MySQL for Oracle DBA presentations.

    The MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA is a series of educational talks all Oracle DBA resources should attend. Two presentations from this series IGNITION and LIFTOFF will be presented at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY. If you would like to here these presentations in your area, please contact me.

Don't Assume – Data Integrity

MySQL has the same level of data integrity for numbers and strings as Oracle; when MySQL is correctly configured. By default (a reason I wish I knew why it is still the default), MySQL performs silent conversions on boundary conditions of data that will result in your data not always being what is specified. Let’s look at the following examples to demonstrate default behavior.

For numbers

mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS example;
mysql> CREATE TABLE example(i1  TINYINT, i2 TINYINT UNSIGNED, c1 VARCHAR(5));
mysql> INSERT INTO example (i1) VALUES (1), (-1), (100), (500);
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 1 warning (0.08 sec)
mysql> SELECT * FROM example;
+------+------+------+
| i1   | i2   | c1   |
+------+------+------+
|    1 | NULL | NULL |
|   -1 | NULL | NULL |
|  100 | NULL | NULL |
|  127 | NULL | NULL |
+------+------+------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

As you can see for one value we inserted 500, yet the value of 127 is stored? For this example I have used the TINYINT numeric data type to demonstrate truncation. TINYINT is a 1 byte integer that stores values from -128 to +127. Unlike Oracle, MySQL has 9 different data types for numeric columns, and using these wisely can improve your database disk footprint, for example BIGINT v INT. Is there a big deal?.

MySQL also has a nice feature for numeric data types, the UNSIGNED attribute that ensures only a positive integer or 0 value. Let’s see what happens with this column.

Unsigned

mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE example;
mysql> INSERT INTO example (i2) VALUES (1), (-1), (100), (500);
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT * FROM example;
+------+------+------+
| i1   | i2   | c1   |
+------+------+------+
| NULL |    1 | NULL |
| NULL |    0 | NULL |
| NULL |  100 | NULL |
| NULL |  255 | NULL |
+------+------+------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Now you see that -1 and 500 are now not the expected values, and before while 500 was silently truncated to 127, now it’s truncated to 255.

For Strings

As you can now assume, the following also occurs for strings.

mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE example;
mysql> INSERT INTO example (c1) VALUES (NULL),('a'),('abcde'),('xyz12345');
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT * FROM example;
+------+------+-------+
| i1   | i2   | c1    |
+------+------+-------+
| NULL | NULL | NULL  |
| NULL | NULL | a     |
| NULL | NULL | abcde |
| NULL | NULL | xyz12 |
+------+------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Show warnings

As you can see here, the mysql client shows that warnings occurred, but if you don’t review the warning you would never know, a situation that is rarely reviewed with development in richer programming languages. Let us look at these actual warnings more closely.

mysql> INSERT INTO example (i1) VALUES (1), (-1), (100), (500);
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 1 warning (0.08 sec)
mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                     |
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i1' at row 4 |
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+

mysql> INSERT INTO example (i2) VALUES (1), (-1), (100), (500);
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.00 sec)
mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                     |
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i2' at row 2 |
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i2' at row 4 |
+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> INSERT INTO example (c1) VALUES (NULL),('a'),('abcde'),('xyz12345');
Query OK, 4 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+---------+------+-----------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                 |
+---------+------+-----------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1265 | Data truncated for column 'c1' at row 4 |
+---------+------+-----------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Using sql_mode

The solution is the sql_mode configuration variable and at minimum the value of STRICT_ALL_TABLES defined. We can demonstrate the expected behavior with the following syntax.

mysql> set SESSION sql_mode=STRICT_ALL_TABLES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE example;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO example (i1) VALUES (1), (-1), (100), (500);
ERROR 1264 (22003): Out of range value for column 'i1' at row 4
mysql> SELECT * FROM example;
+------+------+------+
| i1   | i2   | c1   |
+------+------+------+
|    1 | NULL | NULL |
|   -1 | NULL | NULL |
|  100 | NULL | NULL |
+------+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

As you can see, even with an error for a single INSERT statement, some data was actually stored. You should read Don’t Assume – Transactions for some insights here.

When it comes to dates, there is greater complexity and this is grounds for another entry of this series.

References

About “Don’t Assume”

“Don’t Assume” is a series of posts to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate the subtle differences and unique characteristics of the MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle. These points as essential to operate MySQL effectively in a production environment and avoid any loss of data or availability.

For more posts in this series be sure to follow the mysql4oracledba tag and also watch out for MySQL for Oracle DBA presentations.

The MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA is a series of educational talks all Oracle DBA resources should attend. Two presentations from this series IGNITION and LIFTOFF will be presented at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY. If you would like to here these presentations in your area, please contact me.

Don't Assume – Transactions

MySQL by default is a NON transactional database. For the hobbyist (See The Hobbyist and the Professional), startup entrepreneur and website developer this may not appear foreign, however to the seasoned Oracle DBA who has only used Oracle the concept is very foreign.

In MySQL you have to be concerned with two situations that will catch the unprepared out. The first is the default autocommit mode. This is TRUE, i.e. all statements are automatically committed on completion.

mysql> SELECT @@autocommit,TRUE;
+--------------+------+
| @@autocommit | TRUE |
+--------------+------+
|            1 |    1 |
+--------------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The second is the storage engine used. Again a foreign term for Oracle DBA’s, a storage engine is a technology that stores and retrieves the underlying data from the MySQL database. MySQL has many different storage engines, each with relative strengths and weaknesses and different features. For the purpose of this discussion it is important to know that engines are either non-transactional or transactional. The default storage engine MyISAM is NON transactional. MySQL provides by default the InnoDB storage engine which is transactional. There are distinct advantages of a non transactional environment which I will not go into at this time.

Having recently written about this in my upcoiming book Expert PHP and MySQL I will demonstrate what happens with both MyISAM and InnoDB.

Non-transactional Tables

To show the difference, Listing 6-7 demonstrates that atomicity is not possible with non-transactional tables. The following tables are used in this example.

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS non_trans_parent;
CREATE TABLE non_trans_parent (
  id   INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  val  VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id),
UNIQUE KEY (val)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET latin1;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS non_trans_child;
CREATE TABLE non_trans_child (
  id        INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  parent_id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
  created   TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id),
INDEX (parent_id)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET latin1;

To test things out, perform a sample transaction that inserts records into these two tables:

START TRANSACTION;
INSERT INTO non_trans_parent(val) VALUES(‘a’);
INSERT INTO non_trans_child(parent_id,created) VALUES(LAST_INSERT_ID(),NOW());
INSERT INTO non_trans_parent (val) VALUES(‘a’);
ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry ‘a’ for key ‘val’
ROLLBACK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+--------+------+--------------------------------------------------------------
| Level  | Code | Message
+--------+------+--------------------------------------------------------------
| Warning| 1196 | Some non-transactional changed tables couldn’t be rolled back
+--------+------+--------------------------------------------------------------
SELECT * FROM non_trans_parent;
+----+-----+
| id | val |
+----+-----+
|  1 | a   |
+----+-----+
SELECT * FROM non_trans_child;
+----+-----------+---------------------+
| id | parent_id | created             |
+----+-----------+---------------------+
|  1 |         1 | 2009–09–21 23:44:25 |
+----+-----------+---------------------+

As you can see, data that you would have expected to not exist from the transaction is present.

Transactional Tables

Repeat these SQL statements using the transactional storage engine InnoDB; you will observe the difference between transactional and non transactional processing. The following tables, shown in Listing 6-8, are used in this example.

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS trans_parent;
CREATE TABLE trans_parent (
  id   INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  val  VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id),
UNIQUE KEY (val)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET latin1;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS trans_child;
CREATE TABLE trans_child (
  id        INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  parent_id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
  created   TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id),
INDEX (parent_id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET latin1;

Perform a sample transaction that inserts records into these two tables:

START TRANSACTION;
INSERT INTO trans_parent (val) VALUES(‘a’);
INSERT INTO trans_child (parent_id,created) VALUES(LAST_INSERT_ID(),NOW());
INSERT INTO trans_parent (val) VALUES(‘a’);
ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry ‘a’ for key ‘val’
ROLLBACK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
SELECT * FROM trans_parent;
Empty set (0.00 sec)
SELECT * FROM trans_child;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

As you can see, no data has been recorded as part of the failing transaction.

About “Don’t Assume”

“Don’t Assume” is a series of posts to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate the subtle differences and unique characteristics of the MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle. These points as essential to operate MySQL effectively in a production environment and avoid any loss of data or availability.

For more posts in this series be sure to follow the mysql4oracledba tag and also watch out for MySQL for Oracle DBA presentations.

The MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA is a series of educational talks all Oracle DBA resources should attend. Two presentations from this series IGNITION and LIFTOFF will be presented at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY. If you would like to here these presentations in your area, please contact me.

Don't Assume – Common Terminology

In Oracle the default transaction isolation is READ_COMMITTED. In MySQL the default is REPEATABLE_READ. Because MySQL also has READ_COMMITTED I have seen in more then one production MySQL environment a transaction isolation of READ_COMMITTED. The explanation and ultimately incorrect assumption is the default in Oracle is READ_COMMITTED so we made that the default in MySQL.

I’m not going to discuss the specific differences of these isolation levels (see reference lines below) except to say it that READ_COMMITTED in Oracle more closely relates to the MySQL default of REPEATABLE_READ and not READ_COMMITTED. Just because the same term for a common feature exists, don’t assume the underlying functionality is the same or that either or both actually conform to the SQL ANSI standard.

While switching your MySQL environment to READ_COMMITTED is possible, there is still conjucture if this actually provides any performance improvement. There are different cases of improving locking contention, in one case Heikki Tuuri the creator of InnoDB suggests READ_COMMITTED may overcome an adjacent range gap locking contention problem while in a tpcc-like benchmark a far greater number of deadlocks were detected.

I will close by stating two facts. When changing the MySQL transaction isolation from the default of REPEATABLE_READ you are using a code path that is less tested and not used as frequently to the millions of default MySQL installations, and you are also required to change the default replication format, again a code path less tested and potential a significant increase in I/O load.

References

About “Don’t Assume”

“Don’t Assume” is a series of posts to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate the subtle differences and unique characteristics of the MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle. These points as essential to operate MySQL effectively in a production environment and avoid any loss of data or availability.

For more posts in this series be sure to follow the mysql4oracledba tag and also watch out for MySQL for Oracle DBA presentations.

The MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA is a series of educational talks all Oracle DBA resources should attend. Two presentations from this series IGNITION and LIFTOFF will be presented at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY. If you would like to here these presentations in your area, please contact me.

Don't Assume – Session Scope

MySQL system variables and status variables have two scopes. These are GLOBAL and SESSION which are self explanatory.
This is important to realize when altering system variables dynamically. The following example does not produce the expected results.

mysql> USE test;
Database changed
mysql> CREATE TABLE example1(
    -> id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    -> col1 VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
    -> PRIMARY KEY(id)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.29 sec)

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE example1G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: example1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `example1` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `col1` varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

We see that the table has a default CHARACTER SET of latin1. If you wanted to ensure all tables are created as utf8 you change the appropriate system variable. For example, we change the GLOBAL system variable and re-create the table.

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES like 'char%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name            | Value                                                          |
+--------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| character_set_client     | latin1                                                         |
| character_set_connection | latin1                                                         |
| character_set_database   | latin1                                                         |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                                                         |
| character_set_results    | latin1                                                         |
| character_set_server     | latin1                                                         |
| character_set_system     | utf8                                                           |
| character_sets_dir       | /Users/rbradfor/mysql/mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86/share/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SET GLOBAL character_set_server=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)
mysql> DROP TABLE example1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CREATE TABLE example1( id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, col1 VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY(id) );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE example1G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: example1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `example1` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `col1` varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

The table still is latin1. This is because now we have a SESSION scope that differs from the GLOBAL scope as seen in this output.

mysql> SELECT @@GLOBAL.character_set_server,@@SESSION.character_set_server;
+-------------------------------+--------------------------------+
| @@GLOBAL.character_set_server | @@SESSION.character_set_server |
+-------------------------------+--------------------------------+
| utf8                          | latin1                         |
+-------------------------------+--------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The solution is easy however the trap can be easily overlooked and especially when changing other MySQL system variables.

mysql> SET SESSION character_set_server=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> DROP TABLE example1;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE example1( id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, col1 VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY(id) );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE example1G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: example1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `example1` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `col1` varchar(10) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

By default, and when not specified in SHOW and SET commands the default scope is GLOBAL, however prior to MySQL 5.0.2 the default was SESSION. A note you will find in the 5.0 Reference Manual but not the current GA version 5.1 Reference Manual. See also SHOW STATUS Gotcha written in August 2006.

There are also other gotchas with scope that we will discuss at some other time.

References

About “Don’t Assume”

“Don’t Assume” is a series of posts to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate the subtle differences and unique characteristics of the MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle. These points as essential to operate MySQL effectively in a production environment and avoid any loss of data or availability.

For more posts in this series be sure to follow the mysql4oracledba tag and also watch out for other MySQL for Oracle DBA presentations.

The MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA is a series of educational talks all Oracle DBA resources should attend. Two presentations from this series IGNITION and LIFTOFF will be presented at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY. If you would like to here these presentations in your area, please contact me.

Don't Assume Series – MySQL for the Oracle DBA

As part of my MySQLCamp for the Oracle DBA series of talks to help the Oracle DBA understand, use and appreciate MySQL I have also developed a series of short interesting posts I have termed “Don’t Assume”. Many of these are re-occurring points during my consulting experiences as I observe Oracle DBA’s using MySQL. I am putting the finishing touches to my MySQL for the Oracle DBA series of talks and I’m excited to highlight some of the subtle differences and unique characteristics of MySQL RDBMS in comparison to Oracle and some extent other products including SQL Server.

Stay tuned for more soon.

I will be presenting at the MySQL Users Conference 2010 in Santa Clara, April 2010 two presentations from this series, IGNITION and LIFTOFF. This series also includes JUMPSTART and VELOCITY.

Edward Screven of Oracle to Answer Questions for future of MySQL

For those of you on the O’Reilly MySQL conference list you will no doubt see this email, but for readers here is the important bits.


Oracle Executive Will Speak at O’Reilly MySQL Conference & Expo
Edward Screven to Answer Questions re: Future of MySQL

Sebastopol, CA, February 24, 2010—Wonder about the future of MySQL? Curious about what Oracle plans for the open source database software? Expect answers when Edward Screven, Oracle’s chief corporate architect and leader of the MySQL business, speaks at the O’Reilly MySQL Conference & Expo, scheduled for April 12-15, at the Santa Clara Convention Center and the Hyatt Regency Santa Clara.

Edward Screven reports to CEO Larry Ellison, and he drives technology and architecture decisions across all Oracle products to ensure that product directions are consistent with Oracle’s overall strategy. He’ll discuss the current and future state of MySQL, now part of the Oracle family of products. His presentation will also cover Oracle’s investment in MySQL technology and community, as well as the role that open source in general is playing within heterogeneous customer environments around the world.

I have not found a link yet to provide reference to this.

What do MySQL staff think of the acquisition?

It finally dawned on me while reflecting on the year past this Sunday that the missing voice since the announcement of the Oracle acquisition of Sun Microsystems (and therefore MySQL) has been the MySQL employees.

When I worked as an employee for MySQL Inc, the acquisition by Sun Microsystems in 2008 lead to several requirements about the acquisition.

  • You were not allowed to talk about the acquisition publically.
  • You were not allowed to communicate with any Sun (i.e. the acquirer) resources.

In other words it was “business as usual” which is really an oxymoron, because business will never be exactly as it was before the announcement. The ongoing delay in pending acquisition by Oracle Corporation is really hurting everybody with getting on with doing their jobs, being happy with their work, and making a difference in open source and in the lives of all the benefit from using MySQL.

I’m sure many that have words to say are disappointed, worried or even fearful of their own future careers. Comments are always welcome via Mr Anonymous using 10 minute email.

The Oracle EU statement on MySQL – What's missing

Many providers embedd MySQL with their commercial products including Adobe, Macfee, Nokia, Symantec and ScienceLogic just to name a few. In addition most commercial third party storage engines have for years been forced to provided very customized versions of MySQL due to limitations in the storage engine API. These situations require a license agreement necessary with the trademark holder of MySQL. The Oracle Corporation EU Statement released on December 14, 2009 has carefully worded in the statement about these OEM licenses and storage engine providers there will be no changes for 5 years.

One specific detail is missing, what happens then?

As an individual that uses, recommends, promotes and advises clients especially on various storage engine offerings, I see the downstream effect of uncertainty for these providers can kill the entrepreneurial spirit that the economy desperately needs.

I see the possible impact as two fold. If company X that pays a license agreement is forced in 5 years to now pay say 3x the fee for example and cannot do so, the supplier chain is broken. What about companies that use the product from company X. Are they now liable with a cease and desist notice, therefore jeopardizing these businesses as well.

I see a further complexity in the agreement for storage engine providers. While there is a commitment to maintain the API, basically all storage engine providers don’t use the API, they have custom extensions and custom binaries essential for operation. The agreement makes specific reference to using the provided interfaces. Will the ability to provide heavily customized versions be permitted?

I’m not an expert in open source and commercial licenses and I am not a lawyer, however in the past I admit I may have been ignorant to the specifics that can affect the livelihood of many including myself.

As with any problem, I seek to have or find a solution. I am unclear here what options do exist, and would appreciate feedback.

Due to the anti competitive (*) nature of this resulting acquisition (#), should there be provisions to ensure unrestricted commercial licensing will always be available in the future regardless of time frame. Should limits on the amount of increase or change in license costs to a reasonable amount be enforced to protect companies.

It is most unclear about what will happen and this uncertainly I’m sure is affecting commercial interests.

Until this statement was released, the greatest fear in the MySQL community has been uncertainly. This statement does mention some details but the specifics of commercial business will never be known and therefore still affects us.

(*) Anti competitive nature. Contrary to statements by others, MySQL and Oracle are competitors in the relational database space. While generally they service different spectrums, there is sufficient overlap. As an expert and speaker in Oracle to MySQL migrations I clearly see the competition with these products. For example, while I will never purchase a Ferrari over a Holden for example due to cost and desirable but unnecessary features, they are still both cars and are competitors in their respective industry, the same applies to Oracle and MySQL.

(#) It is important to realize that Oracle is not acquiring MySQL directly. Oracle is acquiring Sun Microsystems which includes Sun hardware platform, the Solaris Operating System and Java which I’m sure are the primary motivations. MySQL is included as it is now owned by Sun Microsystems, and this is the current issue.

NoSQL options

The NoSQL event in New York had a number of presentations on non relational technologies including of Hadoop, MongoDB and CouchDB.

Coming historically from a relational background of 20 years with Ingres, Oracle and MySQL I have been moving my focus towards non relational data store. The most obvious and well used today is memcached, a non persistent distributed key/value pair store. There are a number of persistent key/value stores in the marketplace, Tokyo Cabinet, Project Voldemort and Redis to name a few.

My list of data store products helps to identify the complex name space of varying products that now exist. A trend is towards schema less solutions, the ability to better manage dynamically typed/formatted information and the Agile Methodology release approach is simply non achievable in a statically type relational database table/column structure. The impact of constant ALTER TABLE commands in a MySQL database makes your production system unusable.

In a highly distribute online and increasing offline operation, fault tolerance and data synchronization and eventual consistency are required features in complex topologies such as multi-master.

I advise and promote a technology agnostic solution when possible. With the use of an API this is actually achievable, however in order to use a variety of backend data store products, one must consider the design patterns for optimal management. Two factors to support a highly distributed data set are no joins and minimal transactional semantics. The Facebook API is a great example, where there are no joins for their MySQL Relational backend. The movement back to a logical and non-normalized schema, or move towards a totally schemaless solution do require great though in the architectural concepts of your application.

Ultimately feature requirements will dictate the relative strengths and weaknesses of products. Full text search is a good example. CouchDB provides native support via Lucene. Another feature I like of couchDB is its append only data mode. This makes durability easy, and auto-recovery after crash a non issue, another feature a transactional relational database can not achieve.

With a 2 day no:sql(east) conference this month, there is definitely greater interest in this space.

What to do at 3:25am

Look at MySQL bug reports of course? Well actually I’m writing multiple blog posts, and I was confirming additional reference sources and links when I came across MySQL Bug #29847 – Large CPU usage of InnoDB crash recovery with a big buf pool.

Taking the time to actually read the information exchange I stumble upon.

[8 Jun 23:29] liz drachnik

Hello Heikki -

In order for us to continue the process of reviewing your contribution to MySQL - We need
you to review and sign the Sun|MySQL contributor agreement (the "SCA")

The process is explained here:

http://forge.mysql.com/wiki/Sun_Contributor_Agreement

Getting a signed/approved SCA on file will help us facilitate your contribution-- this
one, and others in the future.

Thank you !

Liz Drachnik  - Program Manager - MySQL

Oops. Well it made me laugh out loud for so many reasons. First your talking to the creator of InnoDB, a part of MySQL for at least 5+ years. Second, there is clearly an agreement between Oracle and MySQL already for the incorporation of InnoDB in the current builds, but mostly because at this late stage of probably Oracle acquisition (which side note has seemed too quite for too long) it seems rather a mute point to be chasing up paperwork.

Fortunately sanity obviously prevailed, unfortunately the public record persists. Still, humor is always good.

[9 Jun 18:04] Liz Drachnik

Please disregard the previous request for an SCA.
thank you