Oracle OpenStack leveraging MySQL Cluster and Docker

At Oracle Openworld this year, Oracle OpenStack Release 2 was announced. This Kilo based distribution included some new deployment features not see in other OpenStack distros including the use of Kolla, Docker and MySQL Cluster. The press release states “First commercially available OpenStack implementation completely packaged as Docker instances”.

Using Docker to containerize each component of services is a very convenient means of dev/test/prod management. Your single node developer environment gets HA automatically, you can easily deploy to two or more management nodes varying services, and they look and act just like your production environment. I have often struggled with developing in OpenStack either with single project environments, creating a devstack, a previously installed 3 node physical server deployment which takes up room and power in my office, and also comparing other single node solutions including Canonical and Mirantis. I am often left to using online services such as Mirantis Express, TryStack and HP Cloud to more easily evaluate the end product, but without any access to the operating cloud under the covers.

It is an interesting move to using MySQL Cluster. I liked this announcement. This is a very robust Master/Master MySQL compatible product that starts with a High Availability implemented through a shared nothing architecture. You get the benefit of dynamic adding of data shards as your system grows. However MySQL Cluster is a very different product under the covers. For those familiar with managing MySQL server a different set of skills are required, starting with the concept of a management node, data nodes and SQL nodes and the different ways to manage, monitor and triage. MySQL Cluster is effectively an in-memory solution so this will require some additional sizing considerations especially for production deployments. Your backup/recovery/disaster recovery strategy will also change. All of this administration exists for MySQL Cluster, it is just different. If you only use MySQL server these are new skills to master. As an expert in MySQL server and having not used MySQL Cluster for at least 7 years, I cannot provide an insights for example of the use of common monitoring tools (including newer SaaS offerings). Still, MySQL Cluster is an extremely stable and production ready product, that scales to millions of QPS easily. Using this as a HA solution gives you a rock solid base which is what you need first.

While I attended a number of sessions and took the Hands On Lab for Oracle OpenStack the proof is having a running local environment. My next post will talk about my experiences installing.


Installing WordPress on Oracle Enterprise Linux LAMP stack

A company blog can be easily configured in under 10 minutes using WordPress, a popular open source LAMP product that runs a reported 12+ million blogs including those found at CNN, NY Times, Wall Street Journal (WSJ), ZDNet, MTV, People Magazine, Playstation and eBay.

A company blog is a great way for the dissemination of information to your user base as well as enabling a means of user feedback via comments.

The following steps show you how to download, configure and get your WordPress blog operational.

Software Pre-Requisites

Software Installation

su -
cd /tmp
cd /var/www/html
tar xfz /tmp/latest.tar.gz
mv wordpress blog

You can now visit http://localhost/blog and you will be presented with a message of an un-configured WordPress environment. You can streamline the MySQL portion of this configuration with the following commands.

cd blog
sed -e "s/database_name_here/blog/;s/username_here/blog_user/;s/password_here/sakila/" wp-config-sample.php > wp-config.php
mysql -uroot -p -e "CREATE SCHEMA blog"
mysql -uroot -p -e "CREATE USER blog_user @localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'sakila'"
mysql -uroot -p -e "GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE on blog.* TO blog_user@localhost"

Returning now to http://localhost/blog you simply only need to specify a Title, password and email address, click Save and your Blog at http://localhost/blog is complete and operational.

MySQL Structures

Looking at the tables that are created by the installation process:

$ mysql -ublog_user -psakila blog

mysql> show tables;
| Tables_in_blog        |
| wp_commentmeta        |
| wp_comments           |
| wp_links              |
| wp_options            |
| wp_postmeta           |
| wp_posts              |
| wp_term_relationships |
| wp_term_taxonomy      |
| wp_terms              |
| wp_usermeta           |
| wp_users              |
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT table_name,engine,table_rows FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = 'blog';
| table_name            | engine | table_rows |
| wp_commentmeta        | MyISAM |          0 |
| wp_comments           | MyISAM |          1 |
| wp_links              | MyISAM |          7 |
| wp_options            | MyISAM |        109 |
| wp_postmeta           | MyISAM |          1 |
| wp_posts              | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_term_relationships | MyISAM |          8 |
| wp_term_taxonomy      | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_terms              | MyISAM |          2 |
| wp_usermeta           | MyISAM |         13 |
| wp_users              | MyISAM |          1 |
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Additional References

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Reviewing your MySQL installation on Oracle Enterprise Linux

After successfully Installing MySQL, let us take a look at an operational MySQL instance on your Oracle Enterprise Linux server.

User Management

By default there will be a new mysql user and group created. This user is used to run the mysqld process is generally not used for any other purpose.

$ grep mysql /etc/{passwd,shadow,group}
/etc/passwd:mysql:x:27:27:MySQL Server:/var/lib/mysql:/bin/bash


MySQL binaries are found in /usr/bin.

$ ls -l /usr/bin/mysql*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  314568 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  110776 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysqlaccess
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   35144 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqladmin
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  112944 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlbinlog
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    7632 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlbug
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   30576 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlcheck
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    7632 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3670 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_convert_table_format
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   22522 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqld_multi
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13073 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   75184 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqldump
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    6356 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqldumpslow
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   11648 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_explain_log
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3245 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysql_find_rows
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root     483 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_fix_extensions
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    5834 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_fix_privilege_tables
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   31431 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysqlhotcopy
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   26160 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlimport
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13659 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_install_db
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    6586 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   16687 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_setpermission
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   28224 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqlshow
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   14473 Feb 16 14:39 /usr/bin/mysql_tableinfo
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  158192 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltest
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   42360 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanager
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   15464 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanagerc
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   13448 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysqltestmanager-pwgen
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1312064 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_tzinfo_to_sql
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   54160 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_upgrade
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    5753 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_upgrade_shell
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  112136 Feb 16 17:45 /usr/bin/mysql_waitpid
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    3818 Feb 16 17:44 /usr/bin/mysql_zap

The mysqld binary is found in /usr/libexec

Error Log

The MySQL error log is found in /var/log/mysqld.log

The content after an initial start of MySQL will look similar to:

cat /var/log/mysqld.log
100705 22:09:03  mysqld started
InnoDB: The first specified data file ./ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Setting file ./ibdata1 size to 10 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Log file ./ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile0 size to 5 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Log file ./ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 5 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: Foreign key constraint system tables created
100705 22:09:03  InnoDB: Started; log sequence number 0 0
100705 22:09:03 [Note] /usr/libexec/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '5.0.77'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  Source distribution

On the first invocation of MySQL, the InnoDB storage engine will create a default tablespace and redo logs. This is the majority of messages in the above log.


MySQL is a multi-threaded single process called mysqld. A second wrapper process mysqld_safe is generally found. This process logs stderr and also will restart the mysqld process if not found.

ps -ef | grep mysql
root     14733     1  0 Jul05 pts/1    00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/ --user=mysql
mysql    14783 14733  0 Jul05 pts/1    00:00:10 /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --user=mysql --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/ --skip-external-locking --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

Memory Usage

MySQL can have a very low memory footprint. By default the mysqld process has a 175M virtual size.

$ ps -eopid,fname,rss,vsz,user,command | grep -e "RSS" -e "mysql"
14275 grep       720  61136 root     grep -e RSS -e mysql
14733 mysqld_s  1192  63820 root     /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/ --user=mysql
14783 mysqld   27004 179496 mysql    /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --user=mysql --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/ --skip-external-locking --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

Disk Usage

The MySQL data files will be stored on a default installation in /var/lib/mysql

$ du -sh /var/lib/mysql
22M     /var/lib/mysql

$ ls -ld /var/lib/mysql
drwxr-xr-x 4 mysql mysql 4096 Jul 13 11:50 /var/lib/mysql

$ ls -l /var/lib/mysql
total 20552
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 10485760 Jul  5 22:09 ibdata1
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  5242880 Jul  5 22:09 ib_logfile0
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  5242880 Jul  5 22:09 ib_logfile1
drwx------ 2 mysql mysql     4096 Jul  5 22:09 mysql
srwxrwxrwx 1 mysql mysql        0 Jul  5 22:09 mysql.sock

The MySQL data directory includes the InnoDB tablespace datafile (ibdata1), redo logs (ib_logfile?), and the mysql directory corresponding to the mysql schema containing instance meta data.

This directory also contains the socket file, which is actually a poor location as this opens the security of this directory for world access. This will be discussed later in securing your installation.

Running MySQL

The best means of controlling the starting and stopping of mysql is to use the provided service init script mysqld

$ ls -l /etc/init.d/mysqld
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4286 Feb 16 17:45 /etc/init.d/mysqld


For OEL the MySQL configuration can be found in /etc.
NOTE: MySQL can use multiple configuration files.

$ ls -l /etc/my.cnf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 441 Feb 16 14:39 /etc/my.cnf

MySQL includes a minimalistic configuration file by default. The configuration file format is variable=value pairs for a given number of different sections, in this file [mysqld] and [mysqld_safe].

$ cat /etc/my.cnf

# Default to using old password format for compatibility with mysql 3.x
# clients (those using the mysqlclient10 compatibility package).

# Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks;
# to do so, uncomment this line:
# symbolic-links=0



A full audit of all MySQL related files.

find / -name "*mysql*"

Installing a LAMP stack on Oracle Enterprise Linux

After successfully installing MySQL on Oracle Enterprise Linux installing a LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) stack can also be performed with a single command:

$ yum install -y httpd php php-mysql
# Start the Apache Httpd Process
$ /etc/init.d/httpd start

To test and confirm Apache Httpd and PHP, we can use the CLI browser lynx:

$ yum install -y lynx
$ echo "<? phpinfo() ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php
$ lynx http://localhost/phpinfo.php

If successful, you will find a web page that contains the following.

phpinfo() (p1 of 31)

   PHP Logo

PHP Version 5.1.6

   System Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.18-164.el5 #1 SMP Thu Sep 3 04:15:13
   EDT 2009 x86_64
   Build Date Feb 11 2010 19:07:36
   Configure   Command   './configure'  '--build=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'
   '--host=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'    '--target=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu'
   '--sbindir=/usr/sbin'    '--sysconfdir=/etc'    '--datadir=/usr/share'
   '--includedir=/usr/include'                      '--libdir=/usr/lib64'
   '--libexecdir=/usr/libexec'                     '--localstatedir=/var'
   '--sharedstatedir=/usr/com'                  '--mandir=/usr/share/man'
   '--infodir=/usr/share/info'             '--cache-file=../config.cache'
   '--with-libdir=lib64'                   '--with-config-file-path=/etc'

It is important to note that PHP is also a standalone scripting language that doesn’t require a web browser. You can use PHP on the command line, for example:

$ php --version
PHP 5.1.6 (cli) (built: Feb 11 2010 19:06:40)
Copyright (c) 1997-2006 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.1.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2006 Zend Technologies

$ echo "<?phpinfo()?>" | php | grep -i mysql
Configure Command =>  './configure' '--build=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--host=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--target=x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu' '--program-prefix=' '--prefix=/usr' '--exec-prefix=/usr' '--bindir=/usr/bin' '--sbindir=/usr/sbin' '--sysconfdir=/etc' '--datadir=/usr/share' '--includedir=/usr/include' '--libdir=/usr/lib64' '--libexecdir=/usr/libexec' '--localstatedir=/var' '--sharedstatedir=/usr/com' '--mandir=/usr/share/man' '--infodir=/usr/share/info' '--cache-file=../config.cache' '--with-libdir=lib64' '--with-config-file-path=/etc' '--with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d' '--disable-debug' '--with-pic' '--disable-rpath' '--without-pear' '--with-bz2' '--with-curl' '--with-exec-dir=/usr/bin' '--with-freetype-dir=/usr' '--with-png-dir=/usr' '--enable-gd-native-ttf' '--without-gdbm' '--with-gettext' '--with-gmp' '--with-iconv' '--with-jpeg-dir=/usr' '--with-openssl' '--with-png' '--with-pspell' '--with-expat-dir=/usr' '--with-pcre-regex=/usr' '--with-zlib' '--with-layout=GNU' '--enable-exif' '--enable-ftp' '--enable-magic-quotes' '--enable-sockets' '--enable-sysvsem' '--enable-sysvshm' '--enable-sysvmsg' '--enable-track-vars' '--enable-trans-sid' '--enable-yp' '--enable-wddx' '--with-kerberos' '--enable-ucd-snmp-hack' '--with-unixODBC=shared,/usr' '--enable-memory-limit' '--enable-shmop' '--enable-calendar' '--enable-dbx' '--enable-dio' '--with-mime-magic=/usr/share/file/magic.mime' '--without-sqlite' '--with-libxml-dir=/usr' '--with-xml' '--with-system-tzdata' '--enable-force-cgi-redirect' '--enable-pcntl' '--with-imap=shared' '--with-imap-ssl' '--enable-mbstring=shared' '--enable-mbstr-enc-trans' '--enable-mbregex' '--with-ncurses=shared' '--with-gd=shared' '--enable-bcmath=shared' '--enable-dba=shared' '--with-db4=/usr' '--with-xmlrpc=shared' '--with-ldap=shared' '--with-ldap-sasl' '--with-mysql=shared,/usr' '--with-mysqli=shared,/usr/lib64/mysql/mysql_config' '--enable-dom=shared' '--with-dom-xslt=/usr' '--with-dom-exslt=/usr' '--with-pgsql=shared' '--with-snmp=shared,/usr' '--enable-soap=shared' '--with-xsl=shared,/usr' '--enable-xmlreader=shared' '--enable-xmlwriter=shared' '--enable-fastcgi' '--enable-pdo=shared' '--with-pdo-odbc=shared,unixODBC,/usr' '--with-pdo-mysql=shared,/usr/lib64/mysql/mysql_config' '--with-pdo-pgsql=shared,/usr' '--with-pdo-sqlite=shared,/usr' '--enable-dbase=shared'
MySQL Support => enabled
MYSQL_SOCKET => /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
MYSQL_INCLUDE => -I/usr/include/mysql
MYSQL_LIBS => -L/usr/lib64/mysql -lmysqlclient
mysql.allow_persistent => On => On
mysql.connect_timeout => 60 => 60
mysql.default_host => no value => no value
mysql.default_password => no value => no value
mysql.default_port => no value => no value
mysql.default_socket => no value => no value
mysql.default_user => no value => no value
mysql.max_links => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysql.max_persistent => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysql.trace_mode => Off => Off
MysqlI Support => enabled
MYSQLI_SOCKET => /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
mysqli.default_host => no value => no value
mysqli.default_port => 3306 => 3306
mysqli.default_pw => no value => no value
mysqli.default_socket => no value => no value
mysqli.default_user => no value => no value
mysqli.max_links => Unlimited => Unlimited
mysqli.reconnect => Off => Off
PDO drivers => mysql, sqlite
PDO Driver for MySQL, client library version => 5.0.77

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Installing MySQL on Oracle Enterprise Linux

One of the significant benefits of MySQL is it’s ease of use. Generally already installed on most Linux systems, MySQL can be installed by a single command if not yet present. On Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.4 you can use the following commands to check for MySQL, configure your yum repository and install MySQL.

# Check if already installed
$ rpm -qa | grep -i mysql

# Configure yum repository on new server
$ su -
$ cd /tmp
$ wget
$ sed -e "s/enabled=0/enabled=1/" public-yum-el5.repo > /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-el5.repo

# Install MySQL
$ yum install -y mysql-server mysql

# Start and test MySQL Instance
$ /etc/init.d/mysqld start
$ mysql -uroot -e "SELECT VERSION()"

| 5.0.77    |

You can find more information about the Oracle public yum repository at You will also note that the version installed is 5.0. The current GA version of MySQL is 5.1, however Red Hat is notorious for taking time to update repositories more regularly. You can always use more current rpm files available at the MySQL downloads page.

If you want MySQL to be configured to automatically start and stop on your server you need to run the following command.

$ chkconfig mysqld on
$ chkconfig --list mysqld
mysqld          0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

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