Utilizing OpenStack Trove DBaaS for deployment management

Trove is used for self service provisioning and lifecycle management for relational and non-relational databases in an OpenStack cloud. Trove provides a RESTful API interface that is same regardless of the type of database. CLI tools and a web UI via Horizon are also provided wrapping Trove API requests.

In simple terms. You are a MySQL shop. You run a replication environment with daily backups and failover capabilities which you test and verify regularly. You have defined DBA and user credentials ACL’s across dev, test and prod environments. Now there is a request for using MongoDB or Cassandra, the engineering department has not decided but they want to evaluate the capabilities. How long as a operator does it take to acquire the software, install, configure, setup replication, backups, ACLs and enable the engineering department to evaluate the products?

With Trove DBaaS this complexity is eliminated due to a consistent interface to perform the provisioning, configuration, HA, B&R, ACL across other products the exact same way you perform these tasks for MySQL. This enables operations to be very proactive to changing technology requests supporting digital transformation strategies.

Enabling this capability is not an automatic approval of a new technology stack. It is important that strategic planning, support and management is included in the business strategy to understanding the DBaaS capability for your organization. Examples of operations due diligence would include how to integrate these products into your monitoring, logging and alerting systems. Determine what additional disk storage requirements may be needed. Test, verify and time recovery strategies.

Trove specifically leverages several other OpenStack services for source image and instance management. Each trove guest image includes a base operating system, the applicable database software and a database technology specific trove guest agent. This agent is the intelligence that knows the specific syntax and version needs to perform the tasks. The agent is also the communication mechanism between Trove and the running nova instance.

Trove is a total solution manager for the instance running your chosen database. Instances have no ssh, telnet or other general access. The only access is via the SQL communication via the defined ports, e.g. 3306 for MySQL.

The Trove lifecycle management covers the provisioning, management, security, configuration and tuning of your database. Amrith Kumar in a recent presentation at the NYC Postgres meetup provides a good description of the specifics.

Trove is capable of describing and supporting clustering and replication topologies for the various data stores. It can support backup and restore, failover and resizing of clusters without the operator needing to know the specific syntax of complexities of a database product they are unfamiliar with.

A great example is the subtle difference in MySQL replication management using GTID’s between MySQL and MariaDb. To the developer, the interaction between MySQL and MariaDB via SQL is the same, the management of a replication topology is not identical, but is managed by the Trove guest agent. To the operator, the management is the same.

Also in his presentation, Kumar described Tesora, an enterprise class Trove service provided with a number of important additional features. Tesora supports additional database products including Oracle and DB2Express as well as commercial versions for Oracle MySQL, EnterpriseDB, Couchbase, Datastax, and mongoDB. Using the Horizon UI customizations with pre-defined trove instances greatly reduces the work needed for operators and deployers to build there own.

Understanding the Oslo Libraries

Underpinning all of the OpenStack projects including Nova, Cinder, Keystone, Glance, Horizon, Heat, Trove, Murano and others is a set of core common libraries that provide a consistent, highly tested and compatible feature set. The Oslo project is a collection of over 30 libraries that are designed to reduce the technical debt of code duplication across projects and provide for a greater quality code path due to the frequency of use in OpenStack projects.

These libraries provide a variety of different features from the more commonly used functionality found in projects including configuration, logging, caching, messaging and database management to more specific features like deprecation management, handling plugins as well as frameworks for command line programs and state machines. The Oslo Python libraries are designed to be Python 2.7 and Python 3.4 compatible, leading the way in migration towards Python 3.

The first stable Oslo library oslo.config was included in the Grizzly release. Now over 30 libraries comprise the Oslo project. These libraries fall into a number of broad categories.

1. Stable OpenStack specific libraries

These libraries, using the olso. prefix are generally well described the library name.

  • oslo.cache
  • oslo.concurrency
  • oslo.context
  • oslo.config
  • oslo.db
  • oslo.i18n
  • oslo.log
  • oslo.messaging
  • oslo.middleware
  • oslo.policy
  • oslo.privsep
  • oslo.reports
  • oslo.serialization
  • oslo.service
  • oslo.utils
  • oslo.versionedobjects
  • oslo.vmware

2. Python libraries that can easily operate with other projects

In addition to the oslo namespace libraries, Oslo has a number of generically named libraries that are not OpenStack specific. The goal is that these libraries can be utilized outside of OpenStack by any Python project. These include:

  • automaton – a framework for building state machines.
  • cliff – a framework for building command line programs.
  • debtcollector – a collection of python patterns that help you collect your technical debt in a non-destructive manner (following deprecation patterns and strategies and so-on).
  • futurist – a collection of async functionality and additions from the future.
  • osprofiler – an OpenStack cross-project profiling library.
  • hacking – a library that provides a set of tools for enforcing coding style guidelines.
  • pbr – (or Python Build Reasonableness) is a add-on library that helps provide (and enforce) a set of sensible default setuptools behaviours.
  • pyCADF – a python implementation of the DMTF Cloud Audit (CADF) data model.
  • stevedore – a library for managing plugins for Python applications.
  • taskflow – a library that helps create applications that handle state/failures… in a reasonable manner.
  • tooz – a library that aims at centralizing the most common distributed primitives like group membership protocol, lock service and leader election

3. Convenience libraries

There are also several libraries that are used during the creation of, or support of OpenStack libraries.

The first was oslo-incubator where as the name suggests, initial libraries were incubated. As this code matured it was refactored into standard libraries. Projects have either graduated, been incorporated elsewhere or been deprecated. While the Oslo Incubator has been removed of libraries in Mitaka, one of the goals of the Newton cycle is to see the adoption of Oslo libraries in all projects. We will be providing a series of blogs to detail the walkthrough and reviews of existing projects for reference.

Other libraries include:

  • oslosphinx is a sphinx add-on library that provides theme and extension support for generating documentation with Sphinx. The Developer Documentation, Release Notes, a number of the OpenStack manuals including the Configuration Reference and now the Nova API Reference rely on this library.

  • oslotest is a helper library that provides base classes and fixtures for creating unit and functional tests.
  • oslo-cookiecutter is a project that creates a skeleton Oslo library from a set of templates.

4. Proposed or deprecated libraries

Some libraries fall outside of these categories, such as oslo.rootwrap. This was a mature library for handling fine filtering of shell commands to run as root. This is now deprecated in favor of oslo.privsep which is a mechanism for running selected python code with elevated privileges.

pylockfile is a legacy (and adopted) inter-process lock management library that was never used within OpenStack.

The oslo.version is an example of a proposed library at present to help in using python metadata to determine versioning.

The Oslo team is also evaluating what other common code may be suitable for an Oslo library.

The meaning behind the Oslo Name

Each OpenStack project has some reason behind the name. Oslo is in reference to the Oslo Peace Accords and “bringing peace” to the OpenStack project.

Oslo is also the capital of Norway, and in Norway you can find Moose. The moose is our project mascot.

are you running KVM or QEMU launched instances?

A recent operators mailing list thread asked this question regarding the OpenStack user survey results of April 2016 (See page 39).

As I verified my own local multi-node devstack dedicated H/W environment with varying commands, I initially came across the following error (which later was found to be misleading).

$ virt-host-validate
  QEMU: Checking for hardware virtualization                                 : PASS
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/kvm                                         : FAIL (Check that the 'kvm-intel' or 'kvm-amd' modules are loaded & the BIOS has enabled virtualization)
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/vhost-net                                   : WARN (Load the 'vhost_net' module to improve performance of virtio networking)
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/net/tun                                     : PASS
   LXC: Checking for Linux >= 2.6.26                                         : PASS

This is an attempt to collate a list of varying commands collected from various sources, and the output of these in my Ubuntu 14.04 LTS environment.

# Are you running 64-bit architecture (0=bad; >0 is good)
$ egrep -c ' lm ' /proc/cpuinfo
8

# Does your processor support hardware virtualization (0=bad; >0 is good)
$ egrep -c '^flags.*(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo
8

# Are you running a 64-bit OS
$ uname -m
x86_64

# Have I installed the right Ubuntu packages
$ dpkg -l | egrep '(libvirt-bin|kvm|ubuntu-vm-builder|bridge-utils)'
ii  bridge-utils                        1.5-6ubuntu2                          amd64        Utilities for configuring the Linux Ethernet bridge
ii  libvirt-bin                         1.2.2-0ubuntu13.1.17                  amd64        programs for the libvirt library
ii  qemu-kvm                            2.0.0+dfsg-2ubuntu1.24                amd64        QEMU Full virtualization

# Have packages configured user privileges
$ grep libvirt /etc/passwd /etc/group
/etc/passwd:libvirt-qemu:x:108:115:Libvirt Qemu,,,:/var/lib/libvirt:/bin/false
/etc/passwd:libvirt-dnsmasq:x:109:116:Libvirt Dnsmasq,,,:/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq:/bin/false
/etc/group:libvirtd:x:116:rbradfor,stack

# Have I configured QEMU to use KVM
$ cat /etc/modprobe.d/qemu-system-x86.conf
options kvm_intel nested=1

# Have I loaded the KVM kernel modules
$ lsmod | grep kvm
kvm_intel             143630  3 
kvm                   456274  1 kvm_intel

# Are there any KVM related system messages
$ dmesg | grep kvm
[ 2030.719215] kvm: zapping shadow pages for mmio generation wraparound
[ 2032.454780] kvm [6817]: vcpu0 disabled perfctr wrmsr: 0xc1 data 0xabcd

# Can I use KVM?
$ kvm-ok
INFO: /dev/kvm exists
KVM acceleration can be used

# Can I find a KVM device
$ ls -l /dev/kvm
crw-rw---- 1 root kvm 10, 232 May 11 14:15 /dev/kvm

# Have I configured nested KVM 
$ cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested
Y

All of the above is the default output of a stock Ubuntu 14.04 install on my H/W, and with the correctly configured Bios (which requires a hard reboot to verify, and a camera to record the proof).

Some more analysis when changing the Bios.

$ sudo kvm-ok
INFO: /dev/kvm does not exist
HINT:   sudo modprobe kvm_intel
INFO: Your CPU supports KVM extensions
INFO: KVM (vmx) is disabled by your BIOS
HINT: Enter your BIOS setup and enable Virtualization Technology (VT),
      and then hard poweroff/poweron your system
KVM acceleration can NOT be used

When running a VirtualBox VM, the following is found.

$ sudo kvm-ok
INFO: Your CPU does not support KVM extensions
KVM acceleration can NOT be used

Now checking my OpenStack installation for related KVM needs.

# Have I configured Nova to use KVM virtualization
$ grep virt_type /etc/nova/nova.conf
virt_type = kvm

# Checking hypervisor type via API's
$ curl -s -H "X-Auth-Token: ${OS_TOKEN}" ${COMPUTE_API}/os-hypervisors/detail | $FORMAT_JSON | grep hypervisor_type
            "hypervisor_type": "QEMU",
            "hypervisor_type": "QEMU",

# Checking hypervisor type via OpenStack Client
$ openstack hypervisor show -f json 1 | grep hypervisor_type
  "hypervisor_type": "QEMU"

Devstack by default has configured libvirt to use kvm.

Spinning up an instance I ran the following additional checks.


# List running instances
$ virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 2     instance-00000001              running

# Check processlist for KVM usage
$ ps -ef | grep -i qemu | grep accel=kvm
libvirt+ 19093     1 21 16:24 ?        00:00:03 qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -name instance-00000001 -S -machine pc-i440fx-trusty,accel=kvm,usb=off...

Information from the running VM in my environment.

$ ssh cirros@10.0.0.2

$ egrep -c ' lm ' /proc/cpuinfo
1

$ egrep -c '^flags.*(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo
1

$ uname -m
x86_64


$ cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
vendor_id	: GenuineIntel
cpu family	: 6
model		: 6
model name	: QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.0.0
...

So, while the topic of the ML thread does indeed cover the confusion over OpenStack reporting the hypervisor type as QEMU when infact it does seem so but is enabling KVM via my analysis. I find the original question as a valid problem to operators.

And finally, this exercise while a lesson in understanding a little more about hypervisor and commands available, the original data was simply an operator error where sudo was needed (and not for other commands).

$ sudo  virt-host-validate
  QEMU: Checking for hardware virtualization                                 : PASS
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/kvm                                         : PASS
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/vhost-net                                   : PASS
  QEMU: Checking for device /dev/net/tun                                     : PASS
   LXC: Checking for Linux >= 2.6.26                                         : PASS

References

Using your devstack cloud

You have setup and installed devstack. Now what!

The Horizon UI will allow you to administer your running cloud from a web interface. We are not going to discuss the web UI in this post.

Using the command line will provide you access to the following initial developer/operator capabilities.

  • Duplicating the features of the UI with the client tools
  • Observing the running services
  • Understanding the logging of OpenStack services
  • Understanding the configuration of OpenStack services
  • Understanding the source code of OpenStack services

This is not an exhaustive list or explanation of each point but an intro into navigating around the running OpenStack services.

Duplicating UI features

OpenStack has a number of individual command line clients for many services, and a common client openstack.

To get started:

$ openstack user list
Missing parameter(s): 
Set a username with --os-username, OS_USERNAME, or auth.username
Set an authentication URL, with --os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url
Set a scope, such as a project or domain, set a project scope with --os-project-name, OS_PROJECT_NAME or auth.project_name, set a domain scope with --os-domain-name, OS_DOMAIN_NAME or auth.domain_name

By default you will need to provide applicable authentication details via arguments or environment variables.
Using the output of the devstack setup, we can obtain applicable details needed for most parameters.

$ ./stack.sh
...
...
...
This is your host IP address: 192.168.56.101
This is your host IPv6 address: ::1
Horizon is now available at http://192.168.56.101/dashboard
Keystone is serving at http://192.168.56.101:5000/
The default users are: admin and demo
The password: passwd

We can now retrieve a summary list of users defined in your project with:

$ openstack --os-username=admin --os-password=passwd --os-auth-url=http://192.168.56.101:5000/ --os-project-name=demo user list
+----------------------------------+----------+
| ID                               | Name     |
+----------------------------------+----------+
| a531ea1011af43bb8277f3e5edfea34b | admin    |
| d6ce303e83b64a2998228c55ebd274c3 | demo     |
| fe7301aa4d2b44b482cd6ba19c24f6b8 | alt_demo |
| e18ae48148df4593b4067785c5e72820 | nova     |
| 9a49deabb7b64454abf411de87c2862c | glance   |
| 1315257f265740f8a32988b014c9e693 | cinder   |
+----------------------------------+----------+

One parameter that is required but no information was available in the devstack installation output was project. There are a number of projects defined in the installation which you can obtain with:

$ openstack --os-username=admin --os-password=passwd --os-auth-url=http://192.168.56.101:5000/ --os-project-name=admin project list
+----------------------------------+--------------------+
| ID                               | Name               |
+----------------------------------+--------------------+
| 3b9f48af38ac40a495ca7b22d4d5c036 | demo               |
| 42c574962a114974bfe35e4a3467df60 | service            |
| 7af69c571e764d5f99688ed2e59930d5 | alt_demo           |
| 893b8954952c4319abd6596b587bba5f | admin              |
| da71fdc9c88f4eddac38937dfef542a2 | invisible_to_admin |
+----------------------------------+--------------------+

By defining authentication with environment variables you can easily simply CLI command usage. For example:

$ export OS_USERNAME=admin
$ export OS_PASSWORD=passwd
$ export OS_AUTH_URL=http://192.168.56.101:5000/
$ export OS_PROJECT_NAME=demo
$ openstack user list
...

devstack pre-packages a few source files that enable you to avoid specifying these arguments or environment variables manually. For example to duplicate this example:

$ source accrc/admin/demo
$ openstack user list

The openstack command provides a --help option to list the available options. You can also inquire as to commands with the command list option.

$ openstack --help
$ openstack command list

With the openstack command line interface you can perform all the operations needed to configure, administer and run your cloud services.

Observing the running services

OpenStack is made up of a number of services, those key services in devstack start with nova, keystone, glance, cinder and horizon. devstack conveniently packages the individual running services into separate screen processes, leveraging a cursors based view of services via the output of log files.

You can view the running screen sessions by reattaching with.

$ screen -r

If you get the following error when attempting to reattach “Cannot open your terminal ‘/dev/pts/0′ – please check.”, you have likely tried reconnecting in a different shell session. You can address this with:

$ script /dev/null
$ screen -r

Commands in screen are driven by a key combination starting with ^a (ctrl-A). ^a d will detach from your screen session you just reattached to. This is what gets you out of screen. See the later section for the full list screen help commands.

On the command line you can run the following command to list the available images via the glance service.

$ openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name                            | Status |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| 864bad45-d0de-4031-aea6-80b6af72cf2a | cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-uec         | active |
| 75e8b1ef-ae84-41aa-b0a0-7ea785771f14 | cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-uec-ramdisk | active |
| f694bdb1-4bb0-4f18-a7c9-290ad26b1fc8 | cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-uec-kernel  | active |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+

Within screen you can look at the glance api screen log (^a 5) and can observe the logging that occurs in relation to this command. For example we can see an INFO message to get the images (GET /v2/images), and we can see several DEBUG messages. We will use these DEBUG messages in a later post to describe handling logging output.

The INFO message will look like:

2016-04-04 16:24:00.139 INFO eventlet.wsgi.server [req-acf98429-60de-4d18-a69c-36a7d80bed7c a531ea1011af43bb8277f3e5edfea34b 3b9f48af38ac40a495ca7b22d4d5c036] 192.168.1.60 - - [04/Apr/2016 16:24:00] "GET /v2/images HTTP/1.1" 200 2202 0.116774

While we will discuss logging formats in another post, the standard format (in devstack) includes:

  • Date/Time
  • Logging Level
  • Package
  • Request context. this is made up of
    • req-acf98429-60de-4d18-a69c-36a7d80bed7c a request-id, useful for grouping logging records
    • a531ea1011af43bb8277f3e5edfea34b refers to the user id (as seen in user list above, i.e. admin)
    • 3b9f48af38ac40a495ca7b22d4d5c036 refers to the project id (as seen in the project list above, i.e. demo)
  • The actual log message
In order to page back in screen output, you enter copy mode “^a [” and then you can use ^b (page back) and ^f (page forward) keys.

Understanding the logging of OpenStack services

What is actually observed in the screen output is what is being logged for the Glance API service. We can verify this with the log file logged in /opt/stack/logs.

$ tail -f /opt/stack/logs/g-api.log

NOTE: You may see that there are colors within both the screen and log output. This is an optional configuration setup used by devstack (not an OpenStack default for logging). We will use this later to show a change in the logging of the service.

We can verify the details of the command used within the screen session (^a 5) by killing the running process with ^c.

Using the bash history, you can up arrow to observe the last running command, and restart this.

/usr/local/bin/glance-api --config-file=/etc/glance/glance-api.conf & echo $! >/opt/stack/status/stack/g-api.pid; fg || echo "g-api failed to start" | tee "/opt/stack/status/stack/g-api.failure"

The actual log file is produced by the screen configuration defined in devstack/stack-screenrc.

screen -t g-api bash
"tuff "/usr/local/bin/glance-api --config-file=/etc/glance/glance-api.conf
logfile /opt/stack/logs/g-api.log.2016-04-04-110956
log on

In a running OpenStack environment you would configure logging output to file as per the log_file option.

Understanding the configuration of OpenStack services

This command indicated a configuration file /etc/glance/glance-api.conf. Glance like other services may contain several configuration files. These are by default defined in the individual projects namespace under /etc.

$ ls -l /etc/glance/
total 152
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack 65106 Apr  4 11:12 glance-api.conf
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack  3266 Mar 11 12:22 glance-api-paste.ini
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack 13665 Apr  4 11:12 glance-cache.conf
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack 51098 Apr  4 11:12 glance-registry.conf
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack  1233 Mar 11 12:22 glance-registry-paste.ini
drwxr-xr-x 2 stack root   4096 Apr  4 11:12 metadefs
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack  1351 Mar 11 12:22 policy.json
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack  1380 Mar 11 12:22 schema-image.json

This is an appropriate time to point to several documentation sources including the Glance Developer Documentation – Configuration Options and the Configuration Guide Image Service options which describe in more detail these listed configuration files and the possible options available. You can find similar documentation for other services.

To demonstrate just how the configuration and logging work with a running service the following will modify the logging of the Glance API service by commenting out the logging configuration lines, and then reverting to the oslo.log configuration defaults.

$ sudo vi /etc/glance/glance-api.conf

Comment out the four logging_ options in the [DEFAULT] section.

[DEFAULT]
#logging_exception_prefix = %(color)s%(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d TRACE %(name)s ^[[01;35m%(instance)s^[[00m
#logging_debug_format_suffix = ^[[00;33mfrom (pid=%(process)d) %(funcName)s %(pathname)s:%(lineno)d^[[00m
#logging_default_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(color)s%(levelname)s %(name)s [^[[00;36m-%(color)s] ^[[01;35m%(instance)s%(color)s%(message)s^[[00m
#logging_context_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(color)s%(levelname)s %(name)s [^[[01;36m%(request_id)s ^[[00;36m%(user)s %(tenant)s%(color)s] ^[[01;35m%(instance)s%(color)s%(message)s^[[00m

Now, repeating the earlier steps within the g-api screen window, kill and restart the service.
The first thing you will observe is that the logging no longer contains color (this helps greatly for log file analysis). Repeat the CLI option to list the images, and you will notice a slightly modified logging message occur.

2016-04-05 11:38:57.312 17696 INFO eventlet.wsgi.server [req-1e66b7e5-3429-452e-a9b7-e28ee498f772 a531ea1011af43bb8277f3e5edfea34b 3b9f48af38ac40a495ca7b22d4d5c036 - - -] 192.168.1.60 - - [05/Apr/2016 11:38:57] "GET /v2/images HTTP/1.1" 200 2202 11.551233

The request context now is a modified format (containing additional - - - values) as a result of using the default value of logging_context_format_string. We will discuss the specifics of logging options in a later post.

There are a reasonable number of log files for a minimal devstack installation, some services have multiple log files.

$ cd /opt/stack/logs; ls -l *.log
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:49 c-api.log -> c-api.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:49 c-sch.log -> c-sch.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:49 c-vol.log -> c-vol.log.2016-04-05-124004
-rw-r--r-- 1 stack stack 16672591 Apr  5 14:01 dstat-csv.log
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:42 dstat.log -> dstat.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:48 g-api.log -> g-api.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:48 g-reg.log -> g-reg.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       29 Apr  5 12:50 horizon.log -> horizon.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       32 Apr  5 12:42 key-access.log -> key-access.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       25 Apr  5 12:42 key.log -> key.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:48 n-api.log -> n-api.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       29 Apr  5 12:49 n-cauth.log -> n-cauth.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       28 Apr  5 12:48 n-cond.log -> n-cond.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:49 n-cpu.log -> n-cpu.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:48 n-crt.log -> n-crt.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       28 Apr  5 12:42 n-dhcp.log -> n-dhcp.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:48 n-net.log -> n-net.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       29 Apr  5 12:49 n-novnc.log -> n-novnc.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       27 Apr  5 12:49 n-sch.log -> n-sch.log.2016-04-05-124004
lrwxrwxrwx 1 stack stack       46 Apr  5 12:40 stack.sh.log -> /opt/stack/logs/stack.sh.log.2016-04-05-124004

To turn off color in logging across service, you can configure this in the devstack local.conf file before starting the stack.

# local.conf
LOG_COLOR=False

Understanding the source code of OpenStack services

devstack installs the OpenStack code in two ways, via packaging and via source.

Generally all libraries are installed via packaging. You can discern these via looking at the python packages via pip with:

$ pip freeze
...
oslo.cache==1.5.0
oslo.concurrency==3.6.0
oslo.config==3.9.0
oslo.context==2.2.0
oslo.db==4.6.0
oslo.i18n==3.4.0
oslo.log==3.2.0
oslo.messaging==4.5.0
oslo.middleware==3.7.0
oslo.policy==1.5.0
oslo.reports==1.6.0
oslo.rootwrap==4.1.0
oslo.serialization==2.4.0
oslo.service==1.7.0
oslo.utils==3.7.0
oslo.versionedobjects==1.7.0
oslo.vmware==2.5.0
...
python-barbicanclient==4.0.0
python-ceilometerclient==2.3.0
python-cinderclient==1.6.0
python-designateclient==2.0.0
python-glanceclient==2.0.0
python-heatclient==1.0.0
python-ironicclient==1.2.0
python-keystoneclient==2.3.1
python-magnumclient==1.1.0
python-manilaclient==1.8.0
python-memcached==1.57
python-mimeparse==1.5.1
python-mistralclient==2.0.0
python-neutronclient==4.1.1
python-novaclient==3.3.0
python-openstackclient==2.2.0
python-saharaclient==0.13.0
python-senlinclient==0.4.0
python-subunit==1.2.0
python-swiftclient==3.0.0
python-troveclient==2.1.1
python-zaqarclient==1.0.0
...

This is a list of all Python packages so it’s not possible to determine which are OpenStack specific, and which are dependencies. These installed packages are actually Python source that you can view and even modify.

$ ls -l /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/

You can approximate the installed OpenStack packages via source by looking at the base source directory:

$ ls -l /opt/stack
total 92
drwxr-xr-x 10 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:23 cinder
drwxr-xr-x  6 stack root  4096 Apr  5 12:42 data
-rw-r--r--  1 stack stack  440 Apr  5 12:52 devstack.subunit
drwxr-xr-x  4 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 dib-utils
drwxr-xr-x 10 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:22 glance
drwxr-xr-x 15 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:26 heat
drwxr-xr-x  7 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 heat-cfntools
drwxr-xr-x 10 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 heat-templates
drwxr-xr-x 11 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 14:13 horizon
drwxr-xr-x 13 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 11:57 keystone
drwxr-xr-x  2 stack stack 4096 Apr  5 12:50 logs
drwxr-xr-x 12 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 15:45 neutron
drwxr-xr-x 13 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:25 nova
drwxr-xr-x  8 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:24 noVNC
drwxr-xr-x  4 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 os-apply-config
drwxr-xr-x  4 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 os-collect-config
drwxr-xr-x  5 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:27 os-refresh-config
drwxr-xr-x  7 stack stack 4096 Apr  5 12:51 requirements
drwxr-xr-x 13 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 15:47 solum
drwxr-xr-x  3 stack stack 4096 Apr  4 11:13 status
drwxr-xr-x 10 stack stack 4096 Mar 11 12:22 swift

devstack enables you to configure which packages you want to install via source. Checkout plugins for more information. For example, the following added to the local.conf would install solum.

# local.conf
...
enable_plugin solum git://git.openstack.org/openstack/solum

You have complete flexibility of which branch and version of each package using devstack. This enables you to use devstack as a testing tool for code changes.

At this time to understand more about how software is installed check out devstack documentation and review the stack.sh script.

What’s next

This is only a cursory introduction into what devstack sets up during the installation process. Subsequent posts will talk more on topics including the configuration options, the different logging capabilities and how to test code changes.

screen help

^a ? will provide the following help output.

                                                                                     Screen key bindings, page 1 of 2.

                                                                                     Command key:  ^A   Literal ^A:  a

  break       ^B b         dumptermcap .            info        i            meta        a            pow_detach  D            reset       Z            title       A            xoff        ^S s      
  clear       C            fit         F            kill        K k          monitor     M            prev        ^H ^P p ^?   screen      ^C c         vbell       ^G           xon         ^Q q      
  colon       :            flow        ^F f         lastmsg     ^M m         next        ^@ ^N sp n   quit        \            select      '            version     v         
  copy        ^[ [         focus       ^I           license     ,            number      N            readbuf     <            silence     _            width       W         
  detach      ^D d         hardcopy    h            lockscreen  ^X x         only        Q            redisplay   ^L l         split       S            windows     ^W w      
  digraph     ^V           help        ?            log         H            other       ^A           remove      X            suspend     ^Z z         wrap        ^R r      
  displays    *            history     { }          login       L            pow_break   B            removebuf   =            time        ^T t         writebuf    >         

^]   paste .
"    windowlist -b
-    select -
0    select 0
1    select 1
2    select 2
3    select 3
4    select 4
5    select 5
6    select 6
7    select 7
8    select 8
9    select 9
I    login on
O    login off
]    paste .
|    split -v
:kB: focus prev

Downloading and installing devstack

The following instructions assume you have a running Linux virtual machine that can support the installation of devstack to demonstrate a simple working OpenStack cloud.

For more information about the preparation needed for this step, see these pre-requisite instructions:

Pre-requisites

You will need to login to your Linux virtual machine as a normal user (e.g. stack if you followed these instructions).

To verify the IP address of your machine you can run:

$ ifconfig eth1

NOTE: This assumes you configured a second network adapter as detailed.

You need to determine the IP address assigned. If this is your first-time using VirtualBox and this was configured with default settings, the value will be 192.168.56.101

eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:db:42:6e  
          inet addr:192.168.56.101  Bcast:192.168.56.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedb:426e/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:398500 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:282829 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:35975184 (35.9 MB)  TX bytes:59304714 (59.3 MB)

Verify that you have applicable sudo privileges.

$ sudo id

If you are prompted for a password, then your privileges are not configured correctly. See here.

Download devstack

After connecting to the virtual machine the following commands will download the devstack source code:

$ sudo apt-get install -y git-core
# NOTE: You will not be prompted for a password
#       This is important for the following installation steps
$ git clone https://git.openstack.org/openstack-dev/devstack

Configure devstack

The following will create an example configuration file suitable for a default devstack installation.

$ cd devstack
# Use the sample default configuration file
$ cp samples/local.conf .
$ HOST_IP="192.168.56.101"
$ echo "HOST_IP=${HOST_IP}" >> local.conf

NOTE: If your machine has different IP address you should specify this alternative value.

Install devstack

$ ./stack.sh

Depending on your physical hardware and network connection, this takes approximately 20 minutes.

When completed you will see the following:

...
This is your host IP address: 192.168.56.101
This is your host IPv6 address: ::1
Horizon is now available at http://192.168.56.101/dashboard
Keystone is serving at http://192.168.56.101:5000/
The default users are: admin and demo
The password: nomoresecrete
While the installation of devstack is happening, you should read Configuration section, and look at the devstack/samples/local.conf sample configuration file being used.

Accessing devstack

You now have a running OpenStack cloud. There are two easy ways to access the running services to verify.

  • Connect the Horizon dashboard in your browser with the URL (e.g. http://192.168.56.101/), and use the user and password described (e.g. admin and nomoresecrete).
  • Use the OpenStack client that is installed with devstack, for example:
$ source accrc/admin/admin
$ openstack image list

See Using your devstack cloud for more information about analyzing your running cloud, restarting services, configuration files and how to demonstrate a code change.

Other devstack commands

There are some useful commands to know about with your devstack setup.

If you restart your virtual machine, you reconnect to devstack by re-running the installation (there is no longer a rejoin-stack.sh):

$ ./stack.sh

To shutdown a running devstack.

$ ./unstack.sh

To cleanup your VM of devstack installed software.

$ ./clean.sh

Retiring an OpenStack project

As part of migrating Oslo Incubator code to graduated libraries I have come across several inactive OpenStack projects. (An inactivate project does not mean the project should be retired or removed). However in my case when consulting the mailing list, it was confirmed that the kite project met the criteria to proceed.

There are good procedures to Retiring a project in the Infra manual. In summary these steps are:

  • Inform the developer community via the mailing list of the intention to retire the project, confirming there are no unaware interested parties.
  • Submit an openstack-infra/project-config change to remove the zuul gate jobs that are run when reviews are submitted. This is needed as the subsequent review to remove code will fail if these checks are enabled..
  • Submit a project review that removes all code, and updates the README with a standard message “This project is no longer maintained. …” See Infra manual for full details. This change will have a Depends-On: for your project-config review. If this review is not yet merged, you should add a Needed-By: reference accordingly.
  • Following the approved review to remove the code from HEAD, a subsequent review to openstack-infra/project-config is needed to remove other infrastructure usage of the project and mark the project as read only.
  • Finally, a request to openstack/governance is made to propose removal of the repository from the governance.

As with good version control, the resulting code for the project is not actually removed.
As per the commit comment you simply git checkout HEAD^1 to access the project in question.

Oracle OpenStack leveraging MySQL Cluster and Docker

At Oracle Openworld this year, Oracle OpenStack Release 2 was announced. This Kilo based distribution included some new deployment features not see in other OpenStack distros including the use of Kolla, Docker and MySQL Cluster. The press release states “First commercially available OpenStack implementation completely packaged as Docker instances”.

Using Docker to containerize each component of services is a very convenient means of dev/test/prod management. Your single node developer environment gets HA automatically, you can easily deploy to two or more management nodes varying services, and they look and act just like your production environment. I have often struggled with developing in OpenStack either with single project environments, creating a devstack, a previously installed 3 node physical server deployment which takes up room and power in my office, and also comparing other single node solutions including Canonical and Mirantis. I am often left to using online services such as Mirantis Express, TryStack and HP Cloud to more easily evaluate the end product, but without any access to the operating cloud under the covers.

It is an interesting move to using MySQL Cluster. I liked this announcement. This is a very robust Master/Master MySQL compatible product that starts with a High Availability implemented through a shared nothing architecture. You get the benefit of dynamic adding of data shards as your system grows. However MySQL Cluster is a very different product under the covers. For those familiar with managing MySQL server a different set of skills are required, starting with the concept of a management node, data nodes and SQL nodes and the different ways to manage, monitor and triage. MySQL Cluster is effectively an in-memory solution so this will require some additional sizing considerations especially for production deployments. Your backup/recovery/disaster recovery strategy will also change. All of this administration exists for MySQL Cluster, it is just different. If you only use MySQL server these are new skills to master. As an expert in MySQL server and having not used MySQL Cluster for at least 7 years, I cannot provide an insights for example of the use of common monitoring tools (including newer SaaS offerings). Still, MySQL Cluster is an extremely stable and production ready product, that scales to millions of QPS easily. Using this as a HA solution gives you a rock solid base which is what you need first.

While I attended a number of sessions and took the Hands On Lab for Oracle OpenStack the proof is having a running local environment. My next post will talk about my experiences installing.

References

Deploying Ubuntu OpenStack Kilo

My previous Ubuntu OpenStack setup has been using the Juno release. I received some installation problems for Kilo using the stable repo and so I switched to using the experimental repo. This comes with a number of surface changes.

  • The interactive installation asks for the installation type first, and password second.
  • The IP range of installed OpenStack services changes from 10.0.4.x to 10.0.7.x.
  • Juju GUI is no longer installed by default. You need to specifically add this as a service after initial installation.
  • The GUI displays additional information during installation.
  • The LXC container name changes from uoi-bootstrap to openstack-single-<user>.

Uninstall any existing environment

Remove any existing installed OpenStack cloud.

sudo openstack-install -k
sudo openstack-install -u

NOTE: Be sure to remove your existing cloud before upgrading. Failing to do so will mean you need to manually cleanup some things with:

sudo lxc-stop --name uoi-bootstrap
sudo lxc-destroy --name uoi-bootstrap
rm -rf $HOME/.cloud_install

Update the OpenStack installer

Upgrade Ubuntu OpenStack with the following commands. In my environment this installed version 0.99.14.

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:cloud-installer/experimental
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade openstack

Install OpenStack Kilo

Installing an Ubuntu OpenStack environment still uses the openstack-install command with an additional argument.

sudo openstack-install --upstream-ppa

NOTE: Updated 6/18/15 When using the experimental repo with version 0.99.12 or earlier you must specify the --extra-ppa argument and value, i.e. sudo openstack-install –extra-ppa ppa:cloud-installer/experimental. Thanks stokachu for pointing this out.

Adding Services

After setting up a Kilo cloud using Ubuntu OpenStack I was able to successfully add a Swift component. Something else that was not quite working as expected in stable.

References

Writing and testing unit tests in OpenStack

The following outlines an approach of identifying and improving unit tests in an OpenStack project.

Obtain the source code

You can obtain a copy of current source code for an OpenStack project at http://git.openstack.org. Active projects are categorized into openstack, openstack-dev, openstack-infra and stackforge.

NOTE: While you can find OpenStack projects on GitHub, these are just a mirror of the source repositories.

In this example I am going to use the Magnum project.

$ git clone git://git.openstack.org/openstack/magnum 
$ cd magnum

Run the current tests

The first step should be to run the current tests to verify the current code. This is to become familiar with the habit, especially if you may have made modifications and are returning to looking at your code. This will also create a virtual environment, which you will want to use later to test your changes.

$ tox -e py27

Should this fail, you may want to ensure all OpenStack developer dependencies are inplace on your OS.

Identify unit tests to work on

You can use the code coverage of unit tests to determine possible places to start adding to existing unit tests. The following command will produce a HTML report in the /cover directory of your project.

$ tox -e cover

This output will look similar to this example coverage output for Magnum. You can also produce a text based version with:

$ coverage report -m 

I will use this text version as a later verification.

Working on a specific unit test

Drilling down on any individual test file you will get an indication of code that does not have unit test coverage. For example in magnum/common/utils:

Once you have found a place to work with and you have identified the corresponding unit test file in the magnum/tests/unit sub-directory, in this example I am working on on magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py, you will want to run this individual unit test in the virtual environment you previously created.

$ source .tox/py27/bin/activate
$ testr run test_utils -- -f

You can now start working on making your changes in whatever editor you wish. You may want to also work interactively in python initially to test and verify classes and methods especially if you are unfamiliar with how the code functions. For example, using the identical import found in test_utils.py for the test coverage I started with these simple checks.

(py27)$ python
Python 2.7.6 (default, Mar 22 2014, 22:59:56)
[GCC 4.8.2] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> from magnum.common import utils
>>> utils.is_valid_ipv4('10.0.0.1') == True
True
>>> utils.is_valid_ipv4('') == False
True

I then created some appropriate unit tests for these two methods based on this interactive validation. These tests show that I not only test for valid values, I also test various boundary contains for invalid values including blank, character and out of range values of IP addresses.

    def test_valid_ipv4(self):
        self.assertTrue(utils.is_valid_ipv4('10.0.0.1'))
        self.assertTrue(utils.is_valid_ipv4('255.255.255.255'))

    def test_invalid_ipv4(self):
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv4(''))
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv4('x.x.x.x'))
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv4('256.256.256.256'))
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv4(
                         'AA42:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329'))

    def test_valid_ipv6(self):
        self.assertTrue(utils.is_valid_ipv6(
                        'AA42:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329'))
        self.assertTrue(utils.is_valid_ipv6(
                        'AA42::0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329'))

    def test_invalid_ipv6(self):
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv6(''))
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv6('10.0.0.1'))
        self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv6('AA42::0202:B3FF:FE1E:'))

After making these changes you want to run and verify your modified test works as previously demonstrated.

$ testr run test_utils -- -f
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=${OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE:-1} \
OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=${OS_STDERR_CAPTURE:-1} \
OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=${OS_TEST_TIMEOUT:-160} \
${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ ${OS_TEST_PATH:-./magnum/tests/unit} --list  -f
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=${OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE:-1} \
OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=${OS_STDERR_CAPTURE:-1} \
OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=${OS_TEST_TIMEOUT:-160} \
${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ ${OS_TEST_PATH:-./magnum/tests/unit}  --load-list /tmp/tmpDMP50r -f
Ran 59 (+1) tests in 0.824s (-0.016s)
PASSED (id=19)

If your tests fail you will see a FAILED message like. I find it useful to write a failing test intentionally just to validate the actual testing process is working.


${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ ${OS_TEST_PATH:-./magnum/tests/unit}  --load-list /tmp/tmpsZlk3i -f
======================================================================
FAIL: magnum.tests.unit.common.test_utils.UtilsTestCase.test_invalid_ipv6
tags: worker-0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Empty attachments:
  stderr
  stdout

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py", line 98, in test_invalid_ipv6
    self.assertFalse(utils.is_valid_ipv6('AA42::0202:B3FF:FE1E:832'))
  File "/home/rbradfor/os/openstack/magnum/.tox/py27/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/unittest2/case.py", line 672, in assertFalse
    raise self.failureException(msg)
AssertionError: True is not false
Ran 55 (-4) tests in 0.805s (-0.017s)
FAILED (id=20, failures=1 (+1))

Confirming your new unit tests

You can verify this has improved coverage percentage by re-running the coverage commands. I use the text based version as an easy way to see a decrease in the number of lines not covered.

Before

$ coverage report -m | grep "common/utils"
magnum/common/utils    273     94     76     38    62%   92-94, 105-134, 151-157, 208-211, 215-218, 241-259, 267-270, 275-279, 325, 349-384, 442, 449-453, 458-459, 467, 517-518, 530-531, 544
$ tox -e cover

After

$ coverage report -m | grep "common/utils"
magnum/common/utils    273     86     76     38    64%   92-94, 105-134, 151-157, 241-259, 267-270, 275-279, 325, 349-384, 442, 449-453, 458-459, 467, 517-518, 530-531, 544

I can see 8 lines of improvement which I can also verify if I look at the html version.

Before

After

Additional Testing

Make sure you run a full test before committing. This runs all tests in multiple Python versions and runs the PEP8 code style validation for your modified unit tests.

$ tox -e py27

Here are some examples of PEP8 problems with my improvements to the unit tests.

pep8 runtests: commands[0] | flake8
./magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py:88:80: E501 line too long (88 > 79 characters)
./magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py:91:80: E501 line too long (87 > 79 characters)
...
./magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py:112:32: E231 missing whitespace after ','
./magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py:113:32: E231 missing whitespace after ','
./magnum/tests/unit/common/test_utils.py:121:30: E231 missing whitespace after ','
...

Submitting your work

In order for your time and effort to be included in the OpenStack project there are a number of key details you need to follow that I outlined in contributing to OpenStack. Specifically these documents are important.

You do not have to be familiar with the procedures in order to look at the code, and even look at improving the code. You will need to follow the steps as outlined in these links if you want to contribute your code. Remember if you are new, the best access to help is to jump onto the IRC channel of the project you are interested in.

This example along with additions for several other methods was submitted (See patch). It was reviewed and ultimately approved.

References

Some additional information about the tools and processes can be found in these OpenStack documentation and wiki pages.

Contributing to OpenStack

Following my first OpenStack Summit in Vancouver 4/2015 it was time to become involved with contributing to OpenStack.

I have lurked around the mailing lists and several IRC channels for a few weeks and familiarized myself with OpenStack in varying forms including devstack, the free hosted Mirantis Express and the VM version, Ubuntu OpenStack, and even building my own 3 physical server cloud from second hand hardware purchased on eBay.

There are several resources available however I suggest you start with this concise presentation I attended at the summit by Adrian Otto on “7 Habits of Highly Effective Contributors” (slides, video).

You should also look at contributions from existing developers by looking at current code being submitted for review at https://review.openstack.org. I spent several weeks just looking at submissions, and I look at new submissions most days. While it does not always make sense (including a lot initially) its important to look at the full scope of all the projects. It is extremely valuable to look at how the review process works, how others comment on contributions, and look at the types of patches and code changes that are being contributed. There are a number of ways of not doing it right which can be discouraging when you first start contributing. The following links are vital to read, and re-read.

Individual projects also have various information, for example Magnum’s Ways to Contribute.

The benefit of observing for some time is you can be better prepared when you start to contribute. I was also new to how unit testing and automated testing worked in Python (about 7th on my list of known languages), and so learning about running OpenStack tests with tox and understanding the different OpenStack tox configs were valuable lessons, helped by feedback of OpenStack developers on the mailing list and IRC (If you have not looked at the 7 Habits presentation, now is a great time).

I took the time to find areas of interest and value which become more apparent after attending my first Design Summit. I even committed to assist in a design priority in the Magnum project as a result of my learning about how unit testing worked.

And if you write about your experiences another thing you can do is Add your blog to Planet OpenStack. I have received great feedback from the OpenStack community when writing about my first experiences.

Tracking the Ubuntu OpenStack installation process

Following on from Installing Ubuntu OpenStack the following steps help you navigate around the single server installation, monitoring and debugging the installation process.

Configuration

The initial execution of the installer will create a default config.yaml file that defines the container and OpenStack services. After a successful installation this looks like:

$ more $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
container_ip: 10.0.3.149
current_state: 2
deploy_complete: true
install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack
openstack_release: juno
placements:
  controller:
    assignments:
      LXC:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - glance
      - glance-simplestreams-sync
      - openstack-dashboard
      - juju-gui
      - keystone
      - mysql
      - neutron-api
      - neutron-openvswitch
      - rabbitmq-server
    constraints:
      cpu-cores: 2
      mem: 6144
      root-disk: 20480
  nova-compute-machine-0:
    assignments:
      BareMetal:
      - nova-compute
    constraints:
      mem: 4096
      root-disk: 40960
  quantum-gateway-machine-0:
    assignments:
      BareMetal:
      - quantum-gateway
    constraints:
      mem: 2048
      root-disk: 20480

This file changes during the installation process which I described later.

The LXC Container

The single server installation is managed within a single LXC container. You can obtain details of and connect to the container with the following.

$ sudo lxc-ls --fancy
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
uoi-bootstrap  RUNNING  10.0.3.149, 10.0.4.1, 192.168.122.1  -     YES      

$ sudo lxc-info --name uoi-bootstrap
Name:           uoi-bootstrap
State:          RUNNING
PID:            19623
IP:             10.0.3.149
IP:             10.0.4.1
IP:             192.168.122.1
CPU use:        27692.85 seconds
BlkIO use:      63.94 GiB
Memory use:     24.29 GiB
KMem use:       0 bytes
Link:           vethC0E9US
 TX bytes:      507.43 MiB
 RX bytes:      1.43 GiB
 Total bytes:   1.93 GiB

$ sudo lxc-attach --name uoi-bootstrap

You can also connect to the server directly. As I prefer to NEVER configure or connect to a server as root this is how I access the LXC container.

$ ssh ubuntu@10.0.3.149

Juju Status

When connected to the LXC container you can then look at the status of the Juju orchestration with.

$ export JUJU_HOME=~/.cloud-install/juju

$ juju status
environment: local
machines:
  "0":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: localhost
    instance-id: localhost
    series: trusty
    state-server-member-status: has-vote
  "1":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.62
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-1
    series: trusty
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=4096M root-disk=40960M
  "2":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.77
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2
    series: trusty
    containers:
      2/lxc/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.147
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-0
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/1:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.15
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-1
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/2:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.135
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-2
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/3:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.133
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-3
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/4:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.119
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-4
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/5:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.88
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-5
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/6:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.155
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-6
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/7:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.36
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-7
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
      2/lxc/8:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.11
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-2-lxc-8
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=2 mem=6144M root-disk=20480M
  "3":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.10
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-3
    series: trusty
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=2048M root-disk=20480M
  "4":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.96
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-4
    series: trusty
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=512M root-disk=8192M
  "5":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.140
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-5
    series: trusty
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=512M root-disk=8192M
  "6":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.197
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-6
    series: trusty
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=512M root-disk=8192M
services:
  glance:
    charm: cs:trusty/glance-11
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      cluster:
      - glance
      identity-service:
      - keystone
      image-service:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - nova-compute
      object-store:
      - swift-proxy
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      glance/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/4
        open-ports:
        - 9292/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.119
  glance-simplestreams-sync:
    charm: local:trusty/glance-simplestreams-sync-0
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      identity-service:
      - keystone
    units:
      glance-simplestreams-sync/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/5
        public-address: 10.0.4.88
  juju-gui:
    charm: cs:trusty/juju-gui-16
    exposed: false
    units:
      juju-gui/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/1
        open-ports:
        - 80/tcp
        - 443/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.15
  keystone:
    charm: cs:trusty/keystone-12
    exposed: false
    relations:
      cluster:
      - keystone
      identity-service:
      - glance
      - glance-simplestreams-sync
      - neutron-api
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - openstack-dashboard
      - swift-proxy
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      keystone/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/2
        public-address: 10.0.4.135
  mysql:
    charm: cs:trusty/mysql-12
    exposed: false
    relations:
      cluster:
      - mysql
      shared-db:
      - glance
      - keystone
      - neutron-api
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - nova-compute
      - quantum-gateway
    units:
      mysql/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/0
        public-address: 10.0.4.147
  neutron-api:
    charm: cs:trusty/neutron-api-6
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      cluster:
      - neutron-api
      identity-service:
      - keystone
      neutron-api:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      neutron-plugin-api:
      - neutron-openvswitch
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      neutron-api/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/7
        open-ports:
        - 9696/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.36
  neutron-openvswitch:
    charm: cs:trusty/neutron-openvswitch-2
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      neutron-plugin:
      - nova-compute
      neutron-plugin-api:
      - neutron-api
    subordinate-to:
    - nova-compute
  nova-cloud-controller:
    charm: cs:trusty/nova-cloud-controller-51
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      cloud-compute:
      - nova-compute
      cluster:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      identity-service:
      - keystone
      image-service:
      - glance
      neutron-api:
      - neutron-api
      quantum-network-service:
      - quantum-gateway
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      nova-cloud-controller/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/3
        open-ports:
        - 3333/tcp
        - 8773/tcp
        - 8774/tcp
        - 9696/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.133
  nova-compute:
    charm: cs:trusty/nova-compute-14
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      cloud-compute:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      compute-peer:
      - nova-compute
      image-service:
      - glance
      neutron-plugin:
      - neutron-openvswitch
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      nova-compute/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: "1"
        public-address: 10.0.4.62
        subordinates:
          neutron-openvswitch/0:
            upgrading-from: cs:trusty/neutron-openvswitch-2
            agent-state: started
            agent-version: 1.20.11.1
            public-address: 10.0.4.62
  openstack-dashboard:
    charm: cs:trusty/openstack-dashboard-9
    exposed: false
    relations:
      cluster:
      - openstack-dashboard
      identity-service:
      - keystone
    units:
      openstack-dashboard/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/6
        open-ports:
        - 80/tcp
        - 443/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.155
  quantum-gateway:
    charm: cs:trusty/quantum-gateway-10
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - rabbitmq-server
      cluster:
      - quantum-gateway
      quantum-network-service:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      quantum-gateway/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: "3"
        public-address: 10.0.4.10
  rabbitmq-server:
    charm: cs:trusty/rabbitmq-server-26
    exposed: false
    relations:
      amqp:
      - glance
      - glance-simplestreams-sync
      - neutron-api
      - neutron-openvswitch
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - nova-compute
      - quantum-gateway
      cluster:
      - rabbitmq-server
    units:
      rabbitmq-server/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 2/lxc/8
        open-ports:
        - 5672/tcp
        public-address: 10.0.4.11

You can also look at a subset of the status for a particular service, for example keystone with:

$ juju status keystone
environment: local
machines:
  "1":
    agent-state: started
    agent-version: 1.20.11.1
    dns-name: 10.0.4.128
    instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-1
    series: trusty
    containers:
      1/lxc/2:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        dns-name: 10.0.4.142
        instance-id: ubuntu-local-machine-1-lxc-2
        series: trusty
        hardware: arch=amd64
    hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=2 mem=6144M root-disk=20480M
services:
  keystone:
    charm: cs:trusty/keystone-12
    exposed: false
    relations:
      cluster:
      - keystone
      identity-service:
      - glance
      - glance-simplestreams-sync
      - neutron-api
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - openstack-dashboard
      shared-db:
      - mysql
    units:
      keystone/0:
        agent-state: started
        agent-version: 1.20.11.1
        machine: 1/lxc/2
        public-address: 10.0.4.142

Monitoring the Installation

When performing an installation you can monitor the executed commands with:

$ tail -f $HOME/.cloud-install/commands.log

...

This provides a lot of debugging output. A streamlined logging is actually possible with automated installation described later.

Uninstalling

As the single server instance is in a LXC container, as the documentation states uninstalling the environment is a rather trivial process that takes only a few seconds.

This will teardown the cloud but leaving userdata available for a subsequent deployment.

$ sudo openstack-install -k
Warning:

This will destroy the host Container housing the OpenStack private cloud. This is a permanent operation.
Proceed? [y/N] Y
Removing static route
Removing host container...
Container is removed.

You can also do a more permanent uninstall of the cloud and packages.

$ sudo openstack-install -u
Warning:

This will uninstall OpenStack and make a best effort to return the system back to its original state.
Proceed? [y/N] Y
Restoring system to last known state.
Ubuntu Openstack Installer Uninstalling ...Single install path.

This does not however seem to cleanup $HOME/.cloud-install. You can safely remove this or move it sideways when re-deploying without any issues.

Installation automation

As described in my original post, the openstack-install script is a cursors-based interactive view. You can automate the installation by defining the needed setup inputs in a separate configuration file and running in headless mode.

$ echo "install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack" > install.yaml

$ sudo openstack-install --headless --config install.yaml

This has the added benefit providing a more meaningful log of the state of the installation with less verbose information then in the commands.log file.

[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.install] Running in headless mode.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.install] Performing a Single Install
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.task] [TASKLIST] ['Initializing Environment', 'Creating container', 'Bootstrapping Juju']
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.task] [TASK] Initializing Environment
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Building environment
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.single_install] Prepared userdata: {'extra_sshkeys': ['ssh-rsa ...\n'], 'seed_command': ['env', 'pollinate', '-q']}
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:42 • cloudinstall.single_install] Setting permissions for user rbradfor
[INFO  • 06-02 12:02:43 • cloudinstall.task] [TASK] Creating container
[INFO  • 06-02 12:04:20 • cloudinstall.single_install] Setting DHCP properties for host container.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:04:20 • cloudinstall.single_install] Adding static route for 10.0.4.0/24 via 10.0.3.160
...
[INFO  • 06-02 12:22:50 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of nova-cloud-controller: pending
[INFO  • 06-02 12:23:31 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of nova-cloud-controller: installed
[INFO  • 06-02 12:23:52 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of nova-cloud-controller: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:24:34 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of keystone: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:24:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of keystone: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:24:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of nova-cloud-controller: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:27:38 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of quantum-gateway: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:27:38 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking availability of nova-cloud-controller: started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:27:38 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Validating network parameters for Neutron
[INFO  • 06-02 12:27:53 • cloudinstall.consoleui] All systems go!=

And 25 minutes later you have an available cloud.

If you attempt to look at the GUI status page with openstack-status you will be given a text based version of messages like.

$ sudo openstack-status
[INFO  • 06-02 12:06:21 • cloudinstall.core] Running openstack-status in headless mode.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:06:21 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Loaded placements from file.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:06:21 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 3 unknown
[INFO  • 06-02 12:08:20 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 1 pending, 2 unknown
[INFO  • 06-02 12:08:48 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 2 pending, 1 unknown
[INFO  • 06-02 12:09:04 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 1 down (started), 1 pending, 1 unknown
[INFO  • 06-02 12:09:13 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 1 down (started), 2 pending
[INFO  • 06-02 12:09:20 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 2 down (started), 1 pending
[INFO  • 06-02 12:09:26 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 1 pending, 2 started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:09:51 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Waiting for machines to start: 1 down (started), 2 started
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Verifying service deployments
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Missing ConsoleUI() attribute: set_pending_deploys
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking if MySQL is deployed
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:44 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Deploying MySQL to machine lxc:1
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:49 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Deployed MySQL.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:49 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking if Juju GUI is deployed
[INFO  • 06-02 12:10:49 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Deploying Juju GUI to machine lxc:1
[INFO  • 06-02 12:11:00 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Deployed Juju GUI.
[INFO  • 06-02 12:11:00 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Checking if Keystone is deployed
[INFO  • 06-02 12:11:00 • cloudinstall.consoleui] Deploying Keystone to machine lxc:1
...

It seems you can trick it into providing both a GUI and text version with the following in another shell session.

$ sed -ie "/headless/d" $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
$ sudo openstack-status

NOTE: You will not get any output until the initial container is completed. This also leaves a .pid file that must be manually cleaned up if you run to soon. The next invocation provides the following message.

$ sudo openstack-status
Another instance of openstack-status is running. If you're sure there are no other instances, please remove ~/.cloud-install/openstack.pid
$ rm $HOME/.cloud-install/openstack.pid

Monitoring the installation progress

The running config.yaml file changes over the duration of the installation.
It’s most basic configuration (when starting with the GUI) is:

$ more $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
current_state: 0
openstack_release: juno

The release is also defined in the $HOME/.cloud-install/openstack_release file.

When starting by passing the configuration as previously mentioned it’s initial state is:

$ more $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
config_file: install.yaml
current_state: 0
headless: true
install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack
openstack_release: juno

This is updated when the LXC container is installed.

$ more $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
config_file: install.yaml
container_ip: 10.0.3.77
current_state: 0
headless: true
install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack
openstack_release: juno

And also updated during installation, such as.

$ more $HOME/.cloud-install/config.yaml
config_file: install.yaml
container_ip: 10.0.3.77
current_state: 0
headless: true
install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack
openstack_release: juno
placements:
  controller:
    assignments:
      LXC:
      - nova-cloud-controller
      - glance
      - glance-simplestreams-sync
      - openstack-dashboard
      - juju-gui
      - keystone
      - mysql
      - neutron-api
      - neutron-openvswitch
      - rabbitmq-server
    constraints:
      cpu-cores: 2
      mem: 6144
      root-disk: 20480
  nova-compute-machine-0:
    assignments:
      BareMetal:
      - nova-compute
    constraints:
      mem: 4096
      root-disk: 40960
  quantum-gateway-machine-0:
    assignments:
      BareMetal:
      - quantum-gateway
    constraints:
      mem: 2048
      root-disk: 20480

When completed the configuration has the following settings.

config_file: install.yaml
container_ip: 10.0.3.77
current_state: 2
deploy_complete: true
install_type: Single
openstack_password: openstack
openstack_release: juno
placements:
...

Problems

When using the GUI installer the first time you quit (using Q), it seems to leave the terminal state wrong. The following will reset this to normal use.

$ stty sane  ^j    # (i.e. Ctrl-J together).

Subsequent uses of openstack-status do not have the same problem.

References

In my next post I am going to talk about the analysis taken to debug errors in the installation, starting with Keystone – hook failed: “config-changed” message I got attempting to install kilo, and hence this more detailed analysis of the installation process components.

Installing Ubuntu OpenStack

The The Canonical Distribution of Ubuntu OpenStack provides a simple installer to run an OpenStack cloud. You can deploy a simple single machine setup with fully containerized services (11 in total), or a multi server installation leveraging MAAS – Metal as a Service and Landscape Autopilot.

Installation

This post describes my experiences with the single machine setup on a 4 core machine with 32GB of RAM with a clean Ubuntu 14.04 LTS OS. The installation requires the following commands to configure the repo, install and configure your OpenStack cloud. In this example, the installed version is 0.22.3.

sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:cloud-installer/stable
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y openstack
sudo openstack-install --version
sudo openstack-install

The final step uses a cusors-based interface and only requires two steps before the installation.

  • Specify a password
  • Specify the install type




The UI provides a progress status of the installation. Initially new containers will start with a Pending status. Following the starting of the Juju GUI container the footer bar shows the URL for the JujuGUI, in my case http://10.0.4.112. Following the starting of the Openstack Dashboard you will then get a Horizon URL also detailed in the footer such as http://10.0.4.74/horizon.






Horizon

The Horizon display is what you generally expect.




JujuGUI

The JujuGUI provides a display of the deployment orchestration via charms. You can also drill down to specific services. An example is for the glance service using the charm cs:trusty/glance-11. This describes the relationships and configuration which are also seen in the GUI. You can also view online the full source code used to create this deployed service.




OpenStack Status

You can view the state of your containerized cloud with openstack-status which is a cursors-based display of the running installation, the same used during the installation. This displays the units deployed, status messages and a footer URL bar that indicates the URL’s of Horizon and JujuGUI. Each time you invoke this it will also check services, as indicated by the [INFO] messages.


Connecting to Containers

The installer will automatically create a SSH key for the user that you use to run the openstack-install command. This enables you to SSH to any of the containers, for example to connect to the MySQL container.

ssh ubuntu@10.0.4.90
$ mysql -uroot -p`sudo cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql.passwd` -e "SHOW SCHEMAS"
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| glance             |
| keystone           |
| mysql              |
| neutron            |
| nova               |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+

You can use the various OpenStack clients to access OpenStack services. These are not installed by default.

sudo apt-get install -y python-glanceclient python-openstackclient python-novaclient python-keystoneclient
$ source $HOME/.cloud-install/openstack-admin-rc
$ glance image-list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+------------------+-----------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name                                                          | Disk Format | Container Format | Size      | Status |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+------------------+-----------+--------+
| f3cd4ec6-8ce6-4a44-85ec-2f8f066f351b | auto-sync/ubuntu-trusty-14.04-amd64-server-20150528-disk1.img | qcow2       | bare             | 257294848 | active |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+------------------+-----------+--------+

More Information

Read Tracking the Ubuntu OpenStack installation process for more detailed information on monitoring the installation process.

Thanks to the New York OpenStack Group and a presentation by Mark Baker of Canonical who demonstrated MAAS and Landscape AutoPilot installation of OpenStack. Slides of Automating hard things slides.

The benefit of attending the OpenStack Summit

I attended my first OpenStack Summit in Vancouver 4/2015. While I have used various cloud computing technologies for eight years and presented cloud content at events such as Cloud Expo, this was my first involvement with OpenStack.

It was the essential experience to become more familiar with the technology, the ecosystem, the contributors and the process of how OpenStack software evolves.

If you are new to OpenStack I would strongly advise you to read about and play with OpenStack so that you have a basic knowledge of some of the core projects. The conference can then provide the accelerated learning to help guide you where to find a possible home in the ecosystem. OpenStack is a large and complex product with many different projects. Having being involved in the mailing list and IRC for a few weeks prior to the conference I was able to interact with core OpenStack developers and PTL’s. This made it much easier to introduce myself at the conference to meet people face to face.

If you missed it, there are many of the Vancouver Summit Videos online.

During the summit which included conference sessions for attendees was the Design Summit. This is where the individual projects discuss the “design” of the next release of OpenStack. This includes talks on the features projects are hoping to include. These sessions are very informative to see just how the OpenStack ecosystem improves and develops the product. I found these to be highly valuable. Not being a seasoned developer in OpenStack this also enabled me to evaluate a range of different projects. I would encourage you to be open-minded and attend design sessions in multiple projects to see how individual teams work, and to find areas of interest. My design summit experience including attending sessions on Keystone, Magnum, OpenStackClient, Infra, Tempest and Rally for example.

Learning the OpenStackClient (OSC)

As a way to navigate the extent of the CLI options for nova, keystone, glance and also openstack commands I came up with an educational approach.

While still early development the goal is to provide a Beginner/Intermediate/Expert views exposing various commands and options to help the user learn in a controlled way.

This initial V0.5 version provides all the glue to test commands against an OpenStack Cloud.

The tool is designed to be self explaining if you have the most basic understanding the OSC. Starting with Help gives you an overview of the options.

As this runs on my webserver, the default operation works great to display help syntax and error conditions. It also connects to a functioning OpenStack Cloud. In my first example it works with Mirantis Express. I intend to provide a means to install within a devstack installation.

Home Page

Help

Running your first command (using help)

Running your first command (producing error output)

Adding Authentication

Listing Images

Show details of an Image in JSON format

Disabling the temporary authorization token in devstack keystone

While building my own OpenStack cloud on physical servers I realized that Keystone uses a temporary authorization token in the Create the service entity and API endpoint and Create projects, users, and roles steps.

The Verify operation step makes reference to removing this mechanism however my current devstack installations have not done this.

To verify this I use the SERVICE_TOKEN as defined in my devstack/local.conf and the Keystone Admin URL.

$ openstack --os-token=aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee --os-url=http://controller:35357/v2.0 user list
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| ID                               | Name                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| 554209509f5b47e286e0379bcbf66762 | admin                            |
| 59ac0457a80d449c9dac3b66848f2b5b | demo                             |
| 8aab962698f9460692efb8d3aab35886 | verify_tempest_config-1304647972 |
| 8b602467cd9045888687987067cbd3f6 | alt_demo                         |
| a134c3b33e94475fb5398643dd816053 | glance                           |
| c68c68579ec0437094a14dfbc4728224 | cinder                           |
| e65bd34ca85a429ea5c56bf980f77d67 | nova                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+

Removing the configuration settings as documented from /etc/keystone/keystone-paste.ini as documented DOES NOT disable this level of access.

NOTE: This edit removes the admin_token_auth option from the pipeline setting in the [pipeline:public_api], [pipeline:admin_api] and [pipeline:api_v3] sections.

$ sudo sed -ie "s/ admin_token_auth / /" /etc/keystone/keystone-paste.ini
$ openstack --os-token=aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee --os-url=http://controller:35357/v2.0 user list
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| ID                               | Name                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| 554209509f5b47e286e0379bcbf66762 | admin                            |
| 59ac0457a80d449c9dac3b66848f2b5b | demo                             |
| 8aab962698f9460692efb8d3aab35886 | verify_tempest_config-1304647972 |
| 8b602467cd9045888687987067cbd3f6 | alt_demo                         |
| a134c3b33e94475fb5398643dd816053 | glance                           |
| c68c68579ec0437094a14dfbc4728224 | cinder                           |
| e65bd34ca85a429ea5c56bf980f77d67 | nova                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+

An additional (and not presently documented step) of restarting apache is needed to invalidate this access.

$ sudo service apache2 restart
$ openstack --os-token=aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee --os-url=http://controller:35357/v2.0 user list
ERROR: openstack Could not find token: aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee (Disable debug mode to suppress these details.) (HTTP 401) (Request-ID: req-617961b7-012a-4d61-bdfb-aa738b8f788f)

The results for the command as shown can be produced by using the user/password credentials with the Keystone public URL.

$ openstack --os-username=admin --os-password=passwd --os-project-name=admin --os-auth-url=http://localhost:5000/ user list
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| ID                               | Name                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| 554209509f5b47e286e0379bcbf66762 | admin                            |
| 59ac0457a80d449c9dac3b66848f2b5b | demo                             |
| 8aab962698f9460692efb8d3aab35886 | verify_tempest_config-1304647972 |
| 8b602467cd9045888687987067cbd3f6 | alt_demo                         |
| a134c3b33e94475fb5398643dd816053 | glance                           |
| c68c68579ec0437094a14dfbc4728224 | cinder                           |
| e65bd34ca85a429ea5c56bf980f77d67 | nova                             |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+

Understanding the different Openstack tox configs

Openstack projects use tox to manage virtual environments and run unit tests which I talked about here.

In this example I am using the oslo.config repo to look at the various tox configs in openstack use. The Governance Project Testing Interface is a starting point to read about project guidelines.

Get the current codebase

$ git clone git://git.openstack.org/openstack/oslo.config
$ cd oslo.config/
$ git rev-parse HEAD
7b1e157aeea426c58e3d4c9a76a231f0e5bc8241

The last line helps me identify the specific git commit I am working with. When moving between branches or when looking at a repo that may be a few days old, if I need to recreate this exact codebase all I need is this. For example, to look at a prior version at 3ab403925e9cb2928ba8e893c4d0f4a6f4b27d7 for example.

$ git checkout 3ab403925e9cb2928ba8e893c4d0f4a6f4b27d72
Note: checking out '3ab403925e9cb2928ba8e893c4d0f4a6f4b27d72'.
...
HEAD is now at 3ab4039... Merge "Added Raw Value Loading to Test Fixture"
$ git rev-parse HEAD
3ab403925e9cb2928ba8e893c4d0f4a6f4b27d72

To revert back to the current repo master.

$ git checkout master
Previous HEAD position was 3ab4039... Merge "Added Raw Value Loading to Test Fixture"
Switched to branch 'master'
Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'.
$ git rev-parse HEAD
7b1e157aeea426c58e3d4c9a76a231f0e5bc8241

NOTE: You don’t need to specify the full commit hash. In this example 3ab4039 also works.

tox configuration

The tox.ini file contains various config sections.

  • [tox] are global options
  • [testenv] are the default options for each virtual environment
  • [testenv:NAME] are the specific test environments

tox.ini

$ cat tox.ini
[tox]
distribute = False
envlist = py33,py34,py26,py27,pep8

[testenv]
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
deps = -r{toxinidir}/requirements.txt
       -r{toxinidir}/test-requirements.txt
commands = python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args='{posargs}'

[testenv:pep8]
commands = flake8

[testenv:cover]
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
commands =
  python setup.py testr --coverage

[testenv:venv]
commands = {posargs}

[testenv:docs]
commands = python setup.py build_sphinx

[flake8]
show-source = True
exclude = .tox,dist,doc,*.egg,build

NOTE: These file differ between projects. See later for an example comparison with python-openstackclient, nova and horizon.

Prerequisites

The default [testenv] options first refer to requirements.txt and test-requirements.txt which define the specific packages and required versions. Either minimum (e.g. netaddr>=0.7.12), range (e.g. stevedore>=1.3.0,<1.4.0) or more specific (e.g. pbr>=0.6,!=0.7,<1.0).

requirements.txt

$ cat requirements.txt
# The order of packages is significant, because pip processes them in the order
# of appearance. Changing the order has an impact on the overall integration
# process, which may cause wedges in the gate later.

pbr>=0.6,!=0.7,<1.0
argparse
netaddr>=0.7.12
six>=1.9.0
stevedore>=1.3.0,<1.4.0  # Apache-2.0

test-requirements.txt

$ cat test-requirements.txt
# The order of packages is significant, because pip processes them in the order
# of appearance. Changing the order has an impact on the overall integration
# process, which may cause wedges in the gate later.

hacking>=0.10.0,<0.11

discover
fixtures>=0.3.14
python-subunit>=0.0.18
testrepository>=0.0.18
testscenarios>=0.4
testtools>=0.9.36,!=1.2.0
oslotest>=1.5.1,<1.6.0  # Apache-2.0

# when we can require tox>= 1.4, this can go into tox.ini:
#  [testenv:cover]
#  deps = {[testenv]deps} coverage
coverage>=3.6

# this is required for the docs build jobs
sphinx>=1.1.2,!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3
oslosphinx>=2.5.0,<2.6.0  # Apache-2.0

# Required only for tests
oslo.i18n>=1.5.0,<1.6.0  # Apache-2.0

# mocking framework
mock>=1.0

Style Guidelines (PEP8)

The first test we look at is pep8 run by flake8. This starts by reviewing the code with Style Guide for Python Code and any specific Openstack Style Guidelines.

$ tox -e pep8
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
pep8 inst-nodeps: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
pep8 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='3973315668'
pep8 runtests: commands[0] | flake8
_________ summary ___________
  pep8: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)

As with all unit tests you are wanting to see "The bar is green, the code is clean". An example of a failing test would look like:

$ tox -e pep8
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
pep8 inst-nodeps: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
pep8 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='820640265'
pep8 runtests: commands[0] | flake8
./oslo_config/types.py:51:31: E702 multiple statements on one line (semicolon)
        self.choices = choices; self.quotes = quotes
                              ^
ERROR: InvocationError: '/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/pep8/bin/flake8'
________ summary _________
ERROR:   pep8: commands failed


$ tox -e pep8
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
pep8 inst-nodeps: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
pep8 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='1937373059'
pep8 runtests: commands[0] | flake8
./oslo_config/types.py:52:13: E113 unexpected indentation
            self.quotes = quotes
            ^
./oslo_config/types.py:52:13: E901 IndentationError: unexpected indent
            self.quotes = quotes
            ^
ERROR: InvocationError: '/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/pep8/bin/flake8'
__________ summary __________
ERROR:   pep8: commands failed

Running tests

To run all tests for a given Python version you just specify said version.

$ tox -e py27
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
py27 inst-nodeps: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
py27 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='1822382852'
py27 runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=
running testr
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ . --list
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpbHjMgm
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpLA0oO0
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpMqT_s_
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpyJLbu8
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpF5KG5t
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpebkBDp
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpscXbNV
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ .  --load-list /tmp/tmpTv0jAn
Ran 1182 tests in 0.475s (-0.068s)
PASSED (id=4)
Slowest Tests
Test id                                                                                                Runtime (s)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  -----------
tests.test_cfg.ConfigFileOptsTestCase.test_conf_file_dict_value_no_colon                               0.029
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ConfigFileReloadTestCase.test_conf_files_reload_default                     0.024
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.SubCommandTestCase.test_sub_command_resparse                                0.016
tests.test_cfg.ConfigFileOptsTestCase.test_conf_file_dict_ignore_dname                                 0.016
tests.test_cfg.ConfigFileOptsTestCase.test_conf_file_list_spaces_use_dgroup_and_dname                  0.016
tests.test_cfg.MultipleDeprecatedCliOptionsTestCase.test_conf_file_override_use_deprecated_multi_opts  0.015
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.OverridesTestCase.test_default_override                                     0.014
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ConfigFileOptsTestCase.test_conf_file_list_default_wrong_type               0.014
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.RequiredOptsTestCase.test_missing_required_group_opt                        0.012
tests.test_generator.GeneratorTestCase.test_generate(long_help,output_file)                            0.011
________ summary _______
  py27: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)

You can pass a specific test or tests via command line identifying the names by looking at the test classes.

$ ls -l oslo_config/tests/[^_]*.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor  12788 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_cfgfilter.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor 144538 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_cfg.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor   4938 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_fixture.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor  16479 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_generator.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor   3865 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_iniparser.py
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rbradfor rbradfor  13259 Apr 30 12:46 oslo_config/tests/test_types.py

NOTE: This project has a top level /tests directory which uses the old import API and I am informed is being removed for liberty.

$ tox -e py27 -- test_types
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
py27 create: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/py27
py27 installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/test-requirements.txt
py27 inst: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
py27 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='1505218584'
py27 runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=test_types
running testr
...
Ran 186 (-996) tests in 0.100s (-0.334s)
PASSED (id=6)
Slowest Tests
Test id                                                                                     Runtime (s)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  -----------
tests.test_types.BooleanTypeTests.test_other_values_produce_error                           0.001
oslo_config.tests.test_types.DictTypeTests.test_equal                                       0.001
oslo_config.tests.test_types.BooleanTypeTests.test_not_equal_to_other_class                 0.000
tests.test_types.IntegerTypeTests.test_positive_values_are_valid                            0.000
tests.test_types.DictTypeTests.test_dict_of_dicts                                           0.000
oslo_config.tests.test_types.ListTypeTests.test_not_equal_with_non_equal_custom_item_types  0.000
tests.test_types.IntegerTypeTests.test_with_max_and_min                                     0.000
oslo_config.tests.test_types.FloatTypeTests.test_exponential_format                         0.000
tests.test_types.BooleanTypeTests.test_yes                                                  0.000
tests.test_types.ListTypeTests.test_repr                                                    0.000
________ summary ________
  py27: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)
$ echo $?
0
$ tox -epy27 -- '(test_types|test_generator)'

A failing test is going to produce the following.

$ tox -epy27 -- test_types
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
py27 create: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/py27
py27 installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/test-requirements.txt
py27 inst: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
py27 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='3672144590'
py27 runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=test_types
running testr
...
======================================================================
FAIL: oslo_config.tests.test_types.IPv4AddressTypeTests.test_ipv4_address
tags: worker-0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 386, in test_ipv4_address
    self.assertConvertedValue('192.168.0.1', '192.168.0.2')
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 27, in assertConvertedValue
    self.assertEqual(expected, self.type_instance(s))
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 515, in assertEqual
    assertion_func(first, second, msg=msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 508, in _baseAssertEqual
    raise self.failureException(msg)
AssertionError: '192.168.0.2' != '192.168.0.1'
Ran 186 (-117) tests in 0.102s (-0.046s)
FAILED (id=8, failures=2 (+2))
error: testr failed (1)
ERROR: InvocationError: '/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/py27/bin/python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=test_types'
________ summary ________
ERROR:   py27: commands failed
$ echo $?
1

Testr

This is a wrapper for the underlying testr command (found in the command line of the [testenv] section). We can reproduce what this runs manually with.

$ source .tox/py27/bin/activate
(py27)$  python setup.py testr
running testr
...
Ran 1182 tests in 0.443s (-0.025s)
PASSED (id=5)

The current tox.ini config includes the --slowest argument which is self explaining.

One benefit of running this specifically is when writing failing tests (i.e. the Test Driven Development (TDD) approach to agile software development). You do not really want to run all tests in order to see a failure. The -f option helps.

$ testr run
...
Ran 1182 (+637) tests in 2.058s (+1.064s)
FAILED (id=12, failures=2 (+1))
$ testr run -- -f
...
Ran 545 (-637) tests in 1.075s (-0.900s)
FAILED (id=13, failures=1 (-1))
$ testr run test_types -- -f
...
Ran 34 (-152) tests in 0.030s (-0.000s)
FAILED (id=18, failures=1 (-1))

NOTE: It takes a bit to realize the syntax of tox and testr and handling doubledash? -- placement. When you work it out you realize you can reproduce this with tox directly using:

$ tox -e py27 -- test_types -- -f
...
Ran 151 (+117) tests in 0.125s (+0.120s)
FAILED (id=19, failures=2 (+1))
error: testr failed (1)
ERROR: InvocationError: '/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/py27/bin/python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=test_types -- -f'
________ summary ________
ERROR:   py27: commands failed

The reason for dropping into an activated virtual environment and running testr manually is because tox will destroy and recreate your virtual environment each time the command is executed, which is time consuming.

The Testr source can be found at testrepository, identified by (py27)$ more `which testr`.

Testr syntax

Testr has multiple options and commands you can read about via various help options:

$ testr help
$ testr quickstart
$ testr commands
$ testr help run

Usage: testr run [options] testfilters* doubledash? testargs*
...

While debugging several testr commands were useful.

List all tests

$ testr list-tests
running=OS_STDOUT_CAPTURE=1 OS_STDERR_CAPTURE=1 OS_TEST_TIMEOUT=60 ${PYTHON:-python} -m subunit.run discover -t ./ . --list
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_choice_bad
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_choice_default
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_choice_good
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_conf_file_bad_choice_value
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_conf_file_choice_bad_default
oslo_config.tests.test_cfg.ChoicesTestCase.test_conf_file_choice_empty_value
...

(py27)$ testr list-tests | wc -l
1183

1183 - 1 corresponds to the 1182 test run.

Last run

This enables you to review the last run tests (in a separate thread) and also get a correct error response code.

(py27)$ testr last
Ran 1182 tests in 0.575s (+0.099s)
PASSED (id=27)
(py27)$ echo $?
0
(py27)$ testr last
======================================================================
FAIL: oslo_config.tests.test_types.IPAddressTypeTests.test_ipv4_address
tags: worker-6
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 386, in test_ipv4_address
    self.assertConvertedValue('192.168.0.1', '192.168.0.2')
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 27, in assertConvertedValue
    self.assertEqual(expected, self.type_instance(s))
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 515, in assertEqual
    assertion_func(first, second, msg=msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 508, in _baseAssertEqual
    raise self.failureException(msg)
AssertionError: '192.168.0.2' != '192.168.0.1'
======================================================================
FAIL: oslo_config.tests.test_types.IPv4AddressTypeTests.test_ipv4_address
tags: worker-7
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 386, in test_ipv4_address
    self.assertConvertedValue('192.168.0.1', '192.168.0.2')
  File "/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/oslo_config/tests/test_types.py", line 27, in assertConvertedValue
    self.assertEqual(expected, self.type_instance(s))
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 515, in assertEqual
    assertion_func(first, second, msg=msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/unittest/case.py", line 508, in _baseAssertEqual
    raise self.failureException(msg)
AssertionError: '192.168.0.2' != '192.168.0.1'
Ran 1182 tests in 0.445s (-0.130s)
FAILED (id=28, failures=2 (+2))
(py27)$ echo $?
1

Code Coverage

The tox.ini also provides a section for code coverage.

$ tox -e cover
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
cover inst-nodeps: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
cover runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='546795877'
cover runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py testr --coverage
running testr
...
Ran 1182 tests in 0.493s (-0.046s)
PASSED (id=26)
_________ summary _________
  cover: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)

Which is a wrapper for:

$ python setup.py testr --coverage
...
Ran 1182 tests in 0.592s (+0.116s)
PASSED (id=27)

These commands produces a /cover directory (which is not currently in .gitignore). The contents are HTML. I suspect there is likely an option for a more CLI readable format however for simplicity we publish these to an available running web server.

Apache Setup

In order to view what code coverage produces I configured Apache with a separate port and vhost in this devstack environment.

$ echo "ServerName "`hostname` | sudo tee /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/servername.conf
$ echo "Listen 81


    DocumentRoot /var/www/html
    
        Options FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride All
        Order allow,deny
        allow from all
    

    LogLevel warn
    ErrorLog \${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/localhost.error.log
    CustomLog \${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/localhost.access.log combined
" | sudo tee /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/localhost.conf
$ sudo apache2ctl graceful

Then I simply copied the projects coverage output as a quick hack to view.

$ sudo cp -r cover/ /var/www/html/
$ sudo apt-get install lynx-cur
$ lynx http://localhost:81/cover
                             Module                            statements missing excluded coverage
   Total                                                       12         0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/__init__  6          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/cfg       1          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/cfgfilter 1          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/fixture   1          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/generator 1          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/iniparser 1          0       0        100%
   .tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslo/config/types     1          0       0        100%

   coverage.py v3.7.1

Documentation

The last testenv setup in oslo.config is for documentation.

$ tox -e docs
GLOB sdist-make: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/setup.py
docs create: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/docs
docs installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/test-requirements.txt
docs inst: /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/dist/oslo.config-1.10.0.zip
docs runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='4293391351'
docs runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py build_sphinx
running build_sphinx
creating /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/doc/build
creating /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/doc/build/doctrees
creating /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/doc/build/html
Running Sphinx v1.2.3
loading pickled environment... not yet created
Using openstack theme from /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/docs/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslosphinx/theme
building [html]: all source files
updating environment: 15 added, 0 changed, 0 removed
reading sources... [100%] types
looking for now-outdated files... none found
pickling environment... done
checking consistency... done
preparing documents... done
writing output... [100%] types
writing additional files... genindex py-modindex search
copying static files... WARNING: html_static_path entry u'/home/rbradfor/oslo.config/doc/source/static' does not exist
done
copying extra files... done
dumping search index... done
dumping object inventory... done
build succeeded, 1 warning.
creating /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/doc/build/man
Running Sphinx v1.2.3
loading pickled environment... done
Using openstack theme from /home/rbradfor/oslo.config/.tox/docs/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/oslosphinx/theme
building [man]: all source files
updating environment: 0 added, 0 changed, 0 removed
looking for now-outdated files... none found
writing... osloconfig.1 { cfg opts types configopts cfgfilter helpers fixture parser exceptions namespaces styleguide generator faq contributing }
build succeeded.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ summary ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  docs: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)

This creates a /doc directory (in .gitignore) which I copied to my previously configured web container to view in HTML.

$ sudo cp -r doc/ /var/www/html/
$ lynx http://localhost:81/doc/build/html

Other tox.ini configuration

As I navigate around other Openstack projects I have noticed some differences. These include:

Alternative global settings

[tox]
minversion = 1.6
skipdist = True

More detailed [testenv]

[testenv]
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
deps = -r{toxinidir}/requirements.txt
       -r{toxinidir}/test-requirements.txt
commands = python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args='{posargs}'
[testenv]
usedevelop = True
install_command = pip install -U {opts} {packages}
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
deps = -r{toxinidir}/requirements.txt
       -r{toxinidir}/test-requirements.txt
commands = python setup.py testr --testr-args='{posargs}'
whitelist_externals = bash

Some fancy output coloring.

[testenv]
usedevelop = True
install_command = pip install -U {opts} {packages}
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
         NOSE_WITH_OPENSTACK=1
         NOSE_OPENSTACK_COLOR=1
         NOSE_OPENSTACK_RED=0.05
         NOSE_OPENSTACK_YELLOW=0.025
         NOSE_OPENSTACK_SHOW_ELAPSED=1
# Note the hash seed is set to 0 until horizon can be tested with a
# random hash seed successfully.
         PYTHONHASHSEED=0
deps = -r{toxinidir}/requirements.txt
       -r{toxinidir}/test-requirements.txt
commands = /bin/bash run_tests.sh -N --no-pep8 {posargs}
[testenv]
usedevelop = True
# tox is silly... these need to be separated by a newline....
whitelist_externals = bash
                      find
install_command = pip install -U --force-reinstall {opts} {packages}
# Note the hash seed is set to 0 until nova can be tested with a
# random hash seed successfully.
setenv = VIRTUAL_ENV={envdir}
         OS_TEST_PATH=./nova/tests/unit
         LANGUAGE=en_US
deps = -r{toxinidir}/requirements.txt
       -r{toxinidir}/test-requirements.txt
commands =
  find . -type f -name "*.pyc" -delete
  bash tools/pretty_tox.sh '{posargs}'
# there is also secret magic in pretty_tox.sh which lets you run in a fail only
# mode. To do this define the TRACE_FAILONLY environmental variable.

Alternative [testenv:NAME] sections

[testenv:functional]
commands = bash -x {toxinidir}/functional/harpoon.sh

[testenv:debug]
commands = oslo_debug_helper -t openstackclient/tests {posargs}

[tox:jenkins]
downloadcache = ~/cache/pip

[testenv:jshint]
commands = nodeenv -p
           npm install jshint -g
           /bin/bash run_tests.sh -N --jshint

[testenv:genconfig]
commands =
  bash tools/config/generate_sample.sh -b . -p nova -o etc/nova

Different Style guidelines

[flake8]
show-source = True
exclude = .tox,dist,doc,*.egg,build
[flake8]
show-source = True
exclude =  .venv,.git,.tox,dist,doc,*openstack/common*,*lib/python*,*egg,build,tools
[testenv:pep8]
commands = flake8
[testenv:pep8]
commands =
  /bin/bash run_tests.sh -N --pep8
  /bin/bash run_tests.sh -N --makemessages --check-only

Different Code Coverage

[testenv:cover]
commands = python setup.py testr --coverage --testr-args='{posargs}'
[testenv:cover]
# Also do not run test_coverage_ext tests while gathering coverage as those
# tests conflict with coverage.
commands =
  coverage erase
  python setup.py testr --coverage \
    --testr-args='{posargs}'
  coverage combine
  coverage html --include='nova/*' --omit='nova/openstack/common/*' -d covhtml -i

Different Docs

[testenv:docs]
commands = python setup.py build_sphinx
[testenv:docs]
commands =
  python setup.py build_sphinx
  bash -c '! find doc/ -type f -name *.json | xargs -t -n1 python -m json.tool 2>&1 > /dev/null | grep -B1 -v ^python'

Additional sections

[testenv:pip-missing-reqs]
# do not install test-requirements as that will pollute the virtualenv for
# determining missing packages
# this also means that pip-missing-reqs must be installed separately, outside
# of the requirements.txt files
deps = pip_missing_reqs
       -rrequirements.txt
commands=pip-missing-reqs -d --ignore-file=nova/tests/* nova
[hacking]
import_exceptions = oslo_log._i18n

What's Next

In a followup blog I will be talking about debugging with pdb and how to use this with tox.

References

Running openstack tests with tox

Recently the OSC (python-openstackclient) project removed run_tests.sh #177066 and tools/install_venv.py scripts #177086.

As I was very new to OpenStack development practices this threw me because of reading several OpenStack documentation pages including Getting the code that specifically mentions in Hacking on your laptop and running unit tests an example Setting Up a Developer Environment, and consulting with a friend that is a ATC this is the way I learned to setup virtual environments and running tests.

The Testing OpenStack Projects documentation also refers to run_tests.sh however caveats “There is an older convention, as follows. Most projects have a shell script, named “run_tests.sh”, that runs the unit tests of that project.” (i.e. devil in the details).

With run_tests.sh and tools/install_venv.py removed what is the *correct* way?

Setting up a virtual environment with tox

First you create the tox virtual environments. The tox configuration is held in tox.ini and this supports multiple environments for compatibility testing. You can see the environments created with.

$ grep envlist tox.ini
envlist = py33,py34,py26,py27,pep8

I have chosen to specify the Python 2.7 version. I am running Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS which has Python 2.7 and Python 3.4. The HACKING.rst docs makes reference to “OpenStackClient strives to be Python 3.3 compatible.” Side Note: Python 3.4 fails to work with the openstackclient codebase, See later for issues I am seeing.

I setup the 2.7 virtual environment without running any tests.

$ tox -e py27 --notest
py27 create: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27
py27 installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt
py27 develop-inst: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient
_________ summary ____________
  py27: skipped tests
  congratulations :)

I can then reference the openstack binary directly in this virtual environment with:

$ .tox/py27/bin/openstack --version
openstack 1.1.0

You can use this virtual environment without requiring any pathing by activating.

$ source .tox/py27/bin/activate
$ openstack

This actually adds the applicable /bin directory to PATH and not PYTHONPATH.

$ which openstack
/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/openstack
$ openstack --version
openstack 1.1.0

Running Tests

There are now several ways I can run individual or full tests.

$ tox -epy27 -- test_shell
py27 create: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27
py27 installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt
py27 develop-inst: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient
py27 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='2928878700'
py27 runtests: commands[0] | python setup.py testr --testr-args=test_shell
running testr
...
Ran 32 tests in 0.148s (+0.029s)
PASSED (id=6)
_____ summary _________________
  py27: commands succeeded
  congratulations :)

NOTE: It seems every second invocation of this fails. This is what I see.

$ tox -epy27 -- test_shell
py27 recreate: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27
ERROR: invocation failed (exit code 3), logfile: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/log/py27-0.log
ERROR: actionid=py27
msg=getenv
cmdargs=['/usr/bin/python', '-m', 'virtualenv', '--setuptools', '--python', '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7', 'py27']
env={'LESSOPEN': '| /usr/bin/lesspipe %s', 'SSH_CLIENT': '192.168.1.2 60030 22', 'LOGNAME': 'rbradfor', 'USER': 'rbradfor', 'PATH': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin:/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games', 'HOME': '/home/rbradfor', 'PS1': '(py27)\\[\\e]0;\\u@\\h: \\w\\a\\]${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\\u@\\h:\\w\\$ ', 'LANG': 'en_US.UTF-8', 'TERM': 'xterm', 'SHELL': '/bin/bash', 'SHLVL': '1', 'PYTHONHASHSEED': '4072653076', 'XDG_RUNTIME_DIR': '/run/user/1000', 'VIRTUAL_ENV': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27', 'XDG_SESSION_ID': '12', '_': '/usr/local/bin/tox', 'SSH_CONNECTION': '192.168.1.2 60030 192.168.1.60 22', 'LESSCLOSE': '/usr/bin/lesspipe %s %s', 'SSH_TTY': '/dev/pts/2', 'OLDPWD': '/home/rbradfor', 'PWD': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient', 'MAIL': '/var/mail/rbradfor', 'LS_COLORS': 'rs=0:di=01;34:ln=01;36:mh=00:pi=40;33:so=01;35:do=01;35:bd=40;33;01:cd=40;33;01:or=40;31;01:su=37;41:sg=30;43:ca=30;41:tw=30;42:ow=34;42:st=37;44:ex=01;32:*.tar=01;31:*.tgz=01;31:*.arj=01;31:*.taz=01;31:*.lzh=01;31:*.lzma=01;31:*.tlz=01;31:*.txz=01;31:*.zip=01;31:*.z=01;31:*.Z=01;31:*.dz=01;31:*.gz=01;31:*.lz=01;31:*.xz=01;31:*.bz2=01;31:*.bz=01;31:*.tbz=01;31:*.tbz2=01;31:*.tz=01;31:*.deb=01;31:*.rpm=01;31:*.jar=01;31:*.war=01;31:*.ear=01;31:*.sar=01;31:*.rar=01;31:*.ace=01;31:*.zoo=01;31:*.cpio=01;31:*.7z=01;31:*.rz=01;31:*.jpg=01;35:*.jpeg=01;35:*.gif=01;35:*.bmp=01;35:*.pbm=01;35:*.pgm=01;35:*.ppm=01;35:*.tga=01;35:*.xbm=01;35:*.xpm=01;35:*.tif=01;35:*.tiff=01;35:*.png=01;35:*.svg=01;35:*.svgz=01;35:*.mng=01;35:*.pcx=01;35:*.mov=01;35:*.mpg=01;35:*.mpeg=01;35:*.m2v=01;35:*.mkv=01;35:*.webm=01;35:*.ogm=01;35:*.mp4=01;35:*.m4v=01;35:*.mp4v=01;35:*.vob=01;35:*.qt=01;35:*.nuv=01;35:*.wmv=01;35:*.asf=01;35:*.rm=01;35:*.rmvb=01;35:*.flc=01;35:*.avi=01;35:*.fli=01;35:*.flv=01;35:*.gl=01;35:*.dl=01;35:*.xcf=01;35:*.xwd=01;35:*.yuv=01;35:*.cgm=01;35:*.emf=01;35:*.axv=01;35:*.anx=01;35:*.ogv=01;35:*.ogx=01;35:*.aac=00;36:*.au=00;36:*.flac=00;36:*.mid=00;36:*.midi=00;36:*.mka=00;36:*.mp3=00;36:*.mpc=00;36:*.ogg=00;36:*.ra=00;36:*.wav=00;36:*.axa=00;36:*.oga=00;36:*.spx=00;36:*.xspf=00;36:'}
The executable /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7 (from --python=/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7) does not exist

ERROR: InvocationError: /usr/bin/python -m virtualenv --setuptools --python /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7 py27 (see /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/log/py27-0.log)
______ summary ___________
ERROR:   py27: InvocationError: /usr/bin/python -m virtualenv --setuptools --python /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7 py27 (see /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py27/log/py27-0.log)

Using the tox.ini command syntax.

$ python setup.py testr --slowest --testr-args=test_shell
...

PASSED (id=5)
Slowest Tests
Test id                                                                             Runtime (s)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------  -----------
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellHelp.test_help_options                    0.026
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellPasswordAuth.test_only_url_flow           0.015
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellPasswordAuth.test_only_project_id_flow    0.009
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellTokenAuth.test_empty_auth                 0.009
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellTokenEndpointAuth.test_only_url           0.008
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellPasswordAuth.test_only_auth_type_flow     0.007
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellPasswordAuth.test_only_project_name_flow  0.007
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellPasswordAuth.test_only_trust_id_flow      0.007
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellTokenAuthEnv.test_only_auth_url           0.007
openstackclient.tests.test_shell.TestShellTokenAuthEnv.test_only_token              0.007

References

The following is recommended reading.

Thanks to Jeremy Stanley (fungi) and Doug Hellmann from the openstack-dev mailing list for setting me on the correct path.

Problems with Python 3.4 on Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS

I was unable to run tests with Python 3.x. I have not spent the time to investigate why there are issues with libyaml which is not listed as core dependency in requirements.txt.
UPDATE: Seems this also is a simple problem. I did not have the -dev package installed.

$ sudo apt-get install -y python3.4-dev

And it’s all fine. Thanks Doug for that insight.

My next objective is to install Python 3.3 also as this is referenced as the baseline compatibility of the project.

$ git rev-parse HEAD
416d840dc4cb00026bac2512b259ce88a0e4a765

$ tox -epy34 -- notests
py34 create: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34
py34 installdeps: -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt
ERROR: invocation failed (exit code 1), logfile: /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/log/py34-1.log
ERROR: actionid=py34
msg=getenv
cmdargs=[local('/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin/pip'), 'install', '-U', '-r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt', '-r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt']
env={'XDG_RUNTIME_DIR': '/run/user/1000', 'VIRTUAL_ENV': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34', 'LESSOPEN': '| /usr/bin/lesspipe %s', 'SSH_CLIENT': '192.168.1.2 60030 22', 'LOGNAME': 'rbradfor', 'USER': 'rbradfor', 'HOME': '/home/rbradfor', 'PATH': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games', 'XDG_SESSION_ID': '12', '_': '/usr/local/bin/tox', 'SSH_CONNECTION': '192.168.1.2 60030 192.168.1.60 22', 'LANG': 'en_US.UTF-8', 'TERM': 'xterm', 'SHELL': '/bin/bash', 'LESSCLOSE': '/usr/bin/lesspipe %s %s', 'SHLVL': '1', 'SSH_TTY': '/dev/pts/2', 'OLDPWD': '/home/rbradfor', 'PWD': '/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient', 'PYTHONHASHSEED': '1330227753', 'MAIL': '/var/mail/rbradfor', 'LS_COLORS': 'rs=0:di=01;34:ln=01;36:mh=00:pi=40;33:so=01;35:do=01;35:bd=40;33;01:cd=40;33;01:or=40;31;01:su=37;41:sg=30;43:ca=30;41:tw=30;42:ow=34;42:st=37;44:ex=01;32:*.tar=01;31:*.tgz=01;31:*.arj=01;31:*.taz=01;31:*.lzh=01;31:*.lzma=01;31:*.tlz=01;31:*.txz=01;31:*.zip=01;31:*.z=01;31:*.Z=01;31:*.dz=01;31:*.gz=01;31:*.lz=01;31:*.xz=01;31:*.bz2=01;31:*.bz=01;31:*.tbz=01;31:*.tbz2=01;31:*.tz=01;31:*.deb=01;31:*.rpm=01;31:*.jar=01;31:*.war=01;31:*.ear=01;31:*.sar=01;31:*.rar=01;31:*.ace=01;31:*.zoo=01;31:*.cpio=01;31:*.7z=01;31:*.rz=01;31:*.jpg=01;35:*.jpeg=01;35:*.gif=01;35:*.bmp=01;35:*.pbm=01;35:*.pgm=01;35:*.ppm=01;35:*.tga=01;35:*.xbm=01;35:*.xpm=01;35:*.tif=01;35:*.tiff=01;35:*.png=01;35:*.svg=01;35:*.svgz=01;35:*.mng=01;35:*.pcx=01;35:*.mov=01;35:*.mpg=01;35:*.mpeg=01;35:*.m2v=01;35:*.mkv=01;35:*.webm=01;35:*.ogm=01;35:*.mp4=01;35:*.m4v=01;35:*.mp4v=01;35:*.vob=01;35:*.qt=01;35:*.nuv=01;35:*.wmv=01;35:*.asf=01;35:*.rm=01;35:*.rmvb=01;35:*.flc=01;35:*.avi=01;35:*.fli=01;35:*.flv=01;35:*.gl=01;35:*.dl=01;35:*.xcf=01;35:*.xwd=01;35:*.yuv=01;35:*.cgm=01;35:*.emf=01;35:*.axv=01;35:*.anx=01;35:*.ogv=01;35:*.ogx=01;35:*.aac=00;36:*.au=00;36:*.flac=00;36:*.mid=00;36:*.midi=00;36:*.mka=00;36:*.mp3=00;36:*.mpc=00;36:*.ogg=00;36:*.ra=00;36:*.wav=00;36:*.axa=00;36:*.oga=00;36:*.spx=00;36:*.xspf=00;36:'}
Collecting pbr!=0.7,<1.0,>=0.6 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached pbr-0.10.8-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting six>=1.9.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 5))
  Using cached six-1.9.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting Babel>=1.3 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 7))
  Using cached Babel-1.3.tar.gz
Collecting cliff>=1.10.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached cliff-1.12.0.tar.gz
Collecting cliff-tablib>=1.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 9))
  Using cached cliff-tablib-1.1.tar.gz
Collecting os-client-config (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 10))
  Using cached os-client-config-0.8.0.tar.gz
Collecting oslo.config>=1.9.3 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached oslo.config-1.11.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting oslo.i18n>=1.5.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 12))
  Using cached oslo.i18n-1.6.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting oslo.utils>=1.4.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached oslo.utils-1.5.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting oslo.serialization>=1.4.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 14))
  Using cached oslo.serialization-1.5.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting python-glanceclient>=0.15.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached python_glanceclient-0.18.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting python-keystoneclient>=1.1.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 16))
  Using cached python_keystoneclient-1.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting python-novaclient>=2.22.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 17))
  Using cached python_novaclient-2.24.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting python-cinderclient>=1.1.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 18))
  Using cached python_cinderclient-1.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting python-neutronclient<3,>=2.3.11 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 19))
  Using cached python_neutronclient-2.5.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting requests!=2.4.0,>=2.2.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 20))
  Using cached requests-2.6.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting stevedore>=1.3.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 21))
  Using cached stevedore-1.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting hacking<0.11,>=0.10.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached hacking-0.10.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting coverage>=3.6 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 6))
  Using cached coverage-3.7.1.tar.gz
Collecting discover (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 7))
  Using cached discover-0.4.0.tar.gz
Collecting fixtures>=0.3.14 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached fixtures-1.0.0.tar.gz
Collecting mock>=1.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 9))
  Using cached mock-1.0.1.tar.gz
Collecting oslosphinx>=2.5.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 10))
  Using cached oslosphinx-2.5.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting oslotest>=1.5.1 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached oslotest-1.6.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting requests-mock>=0.6.0 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 12))
  Using cached requests_mock-0.6.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting sphinx!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3,>=1.1.2 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached Sphinx-1.2.3-py3-none-any.whl
Collecting testrepository>=0.0.18 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 14))
  Using cached testrepository-0.0.20.tar.gz
Collecting testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached testtools-1.7.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting WebOb>=1.2.3 (from -r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 16))
  Using cached WebOb-1.4.1.tar.gz
Requirement already up-to-date: pip in ./.tox/py34/lib/python3.4/site-packages (from pbr!=0.7,<1.0,>=0.6->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 4))
Collecting pytz>=0a (from Babel>=1.3->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 7))
  Using cached pytz-2015.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting argparse (from cliff>=1.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached argparse-1.3.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting cmd2>=0.6.7 (from cliff>=1.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached cmd2-0.6.8.tar.gz
Collecting PrettyTable<0.8,>=0.7 (from cliff>=1.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached prettytable-0.7.2.tar.bz2
Collecting pyparsing>=2.0.1 (from cliff>=1.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 8))
  Using cached pyparsing-2.0.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting tablib (from cliff-tablib>=1.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 9))
  Using cached tablib-0.10.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting PyYAML>=3.1.0 (from os-client-config->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 10))
  Using cached PyYAML-3.11.tar.gz
Collecting netaddr>=0.7.12 (from oslo.config>=1.9.3->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached netaddr-0.7.14-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting iso8601>=0.1.9 (from oslo.utils>=1.4.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached iso8601-0.1.10-py33-none-any.whl
Collecting netifaces>=0.10.4 (from oslo.utils>=1.4.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached netifaces-0.10.4.tar.gz
Collecting msgpack-python>=0.4.0 (from oslo.serialization>=1.4.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 14))
  Using cached msgpack-python-0.4.6.tar.gz
Collecting pyOpenSSL>=0.11 (from python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached pyOpenSSL-0.15.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting warlock<2,>=1.0.1 (from python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached warlock-1.1.0.tar.gz
Collecting simplejson>=2.2.0 (from python-novaclient>=2.22.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 17))
  Using cached simplejson-3.6.5.tar.gz
Collecting flake8==2.2.4 (from hacking<0.11,>=0.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached flake8-2.2.4.tar.gz
Collecting pep8==1.5.7 (from hacking<0.11,>=0.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached pep8-1.5.7-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting mccabe==0.2.1 (from hacking<0.11,>=0.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached mccabe-0.2.1.tar.gz
Collecting pyflakes==0.8.1 (from hacking<0.11,>=0.10.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 4))
  Using cached pyflakes-0.8.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting testscenarios>=0.4 (from oslotest>=1.5.1->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached testscenarios-0.4.tar.gz
Collecting python-subunit>=0.0.18 (from oslotest>=1.5.1->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached python-subunit-1.1.0.tar.gz
Collecting mox3>=0.7.0 (from oslotest>=1.5.1->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 11))
  Using cached mox3-0.7.0.tar.gz
Collecting docutils>=0.10 (from sphinx!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3,>=1.1.2->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached docutils-0.12.tar.gz
Collecting Jinja2>=2.3 (from sphinx!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3,>=1.1.2->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached Jinja2-2.7.3.tar.gz
Collecting Pygments>=1.2 (from sphinx!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3,>=1.1.2->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached Pygments-2.0.2-py3-none-any.whl
Collecting unittest2>=1.0.0 (from testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached unittest2-1.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting traceback2 (from testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached traceback2-1.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting extras (from testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached extras-0.0.3.tar.gz
Collecting python-mimeparse (from testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached python-mimeparse-0.1.4.tar.gz
Collecting cryptography>=0.7 (from pyOpenSSL>=0.11->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached cryptography-0.8.2.tar.gz
Collecting jsonschema<3,>=0.7 (from warlock<2,>=1.0.1->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached jsonschema-2.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting jsonpatch<2,>=0.10 (from warlock<2,>=1.0.1->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached jsonpatch-1.9.tar.gz
Collecting markupsafe (from Jinja2>=2.3->sphinx!=1.2.0,!=1.3b1,<1.3,>=1.1.2->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 13))
  Using cached MarkupSafe-0.23.tar.gz
Collecting linecache2 (from traceback2->testtools!=1.2.0,>=0.9.36->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached linecache2-1.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting pyasn1 (from cryptography>=0.7->pyOpenSSL>=0.11->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached pyasn1-0.1.7.tar.gz
Collecting setuptools (from cryptography>=0.7->pyOpenSSL>=0.11->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached setuptools-15.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting cffi>=0.8 (from cryptography>=0.7->pyOpenSSL>=0.11->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached cffi-0.9.2.tar.gz
Collecting jsonpointer>=1.5 (from jsonpatch<2,>=0.10->warlock<2,>=1.0.1->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached jsonpointer-1.7.tar.gz
Collecting pycparser (from cffi>=0.8->cryptography>=0.7->pyOpenSSL>=0.11->python-glanceclient>=0.15.0->-r /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt (line 15))
  Using cached pycparser-2.12.tar.gz
Installing collected packages: pbr, six, pytz, Babel, argparse, pyparsing, cmd2, PrettyTable, stevedore, cliff, tablib, cliff-tablib, PyYAML, os-client-config, netaddr, oslo.config, oslo.i18n, iso8601, netifaces, oslo.utils, msgpack-python, oslo.serialization, pyasn1, setuptools, pycparser, cffi, cryptography, pyOpenSSL, requests, jsonschema, jsonpointer, jsonpatch, warlock, python-keystoneclient, python-glanceclient, simplejson, python-novaclient, python-cinderclient, python-neutronclient, pyflakes, pep8, mccabe, flake8, hacking, coverage, discover, linecache2, traceback2, unittest2, extras, python-mimeparse, testtools, fixtures, mock, oslosphinx, testscenarios, python-subunit, mox3, testrepository, oslotest, requests-mock, docutils, markupsafe, Jinja2, Pygments, sphinx, WebOb
  Running setup.py install for Babel
  Running setup.py install for cmd2
  Running setup.py install for PrettyTable
  Running setup.py install for cliff
  Running setup.py install for cliff-tablib
  Running setup.py install for PyYAML
    Complete output from command /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin/python3.4 -c "import setuptools, tokenize;__file__='/tmp/pip-build-p19auoc2/PyYAML/setup.py';exec(compile(getattr(tokenize, 'open', open)(__file__).read().replace('\r\n', '\n'), __file__, 'exec'))" install --record /tmp/pip-xlgu_evx-record/install-record.txt --single-version-externally-managed --compile --install-headers /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/include/site/python3.4/PyYAML:
    running install
    running build
    running build_py
    creating build
    creating build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4
    creating build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/representer.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/tokens.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/constructor.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/reader.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/__init__.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/error.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/scanner.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/loader.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/parser.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/nodes.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/serializer.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/cyaml.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/emitter.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/events.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/dumper.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/resolver.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    copying lib3/yaml/composer.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.4/yaml
    running build_ext
    creating build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4
    checking if libyaml is compilable
    x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread -DNDEBUG -g -fwrapv -O2 -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -g -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -Wformat -Werror=format-security -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fPIC -I/usr/include/python3.4m -I/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/include/python3.4m -c build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/check_libyaml.c -o build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/check_libyaml.o
    checking if libyaml is linkable
    x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/check_libyaml.o -lyaml -o build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/check_libyaml
    building '_yaml' extension
    creating build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/ext
    x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -pthread -DNDEBUG -g -fwrapv -O2 -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -g -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -Wformat -Werror=format-security -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fPIC -I/usr/include/python3.4m -I/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/include/python3.4m -c ext/_yaml.c -o build/temp.linux-x86_64-3.4/ext/_yaml.o
    ext/_yaml.c:8:22: fatal error: pyconfig.h: No such file or directory
     #include "pyconfig.h"
                          ^
    compilation terminated.
    error: command 'x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc' failed with exit status 1

    ----------------------------------------
    Command "/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin/python3.4 -c "import setuptools, tokenize;__file__='/tmp/pip-build-p19auoc2/PyYAML/setup.py';exec(compile(getattr(tokenize, 'open', open)(__file__).read().replace('\r\n', '\n'), __file__, 'exec'))" install --record /tmp/pip-xlgu_evx-record/install-record.txt --single-version-externally-managed --compile --install-headers /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/include/site/python3.4/PyYAML" failed with error code 1 in /tmp/pip-build-p19auoc2/PyYAML

ERROR: could not install deps [-r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt]; v = InvocationError('/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin/pip install -U -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (see /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/log/py34-1.log)', 1)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ summary ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ERROR:   py34: could not install deps [-r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt, -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt]; v = InvocationError('/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/bin/pip install -U -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/requirements.txt -r/home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/test-requirements.txt (see /home/rbradfor/tmp/python-openstackclient/.tox/py34/log/py34-1.log)', 1)

Inconsistent messaging for OpenStackClient

As I mentioned earlier in Moving to OpenStackClient CLI I came across several differences in reconciling the legacy CLI tools.

I have also come across very inconsistent messaging. Here is a simple example.

In nova

$ nova list
ERROR (CommandError): You must provide an auth url via either --os-auth-url or env[OS_AUTH_URL] or specify an auth_system which defines a default url with --os-auth-system or env[OS_AUTH_SYSTEM]

In openstack

$ openstack service list
ERROR: openstack Authorization Failed: Cannot authenticate without an auth_url

$ openstack keypair list
ERROR: openstack Authentication requires 'auth_url', which should be specified in 'HTTPClient'

$ openstack catalog list
ERROR: openstack 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'auth'

$ openstack volume list
ERROR: openstack unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'NoneType' and 'str'

All three errors are effectively the same. That is I have not setup environment variables (OS_PROJECT_NAME, OS_AUTH_URL, OS_USERNAME, OS_PASSWORD) or passed all correctly as arguments.

In delving to the openstackclient source code specifically auth.py#147 I see another message “Set an authentication URL, with –os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url”. api.auth is also referenced in the Authentication Documentation as the place to start.

Time to delve in the code to see what I can find out.

cd
git clone git://git.openstack.org/openstack/python-openstackclient
cd python-openstackclient
python tools/install_venv.py
source .venv/bin/activate
# Don't need sudo for local environment
which openstack

After setting OS_USERNAME, OS_PASSWORD, and OS_PROJECT NAME (and not setting OS_AUTH_URL in my test) I run the following.

$ openstack image list
WARNING: openstackclient.shell Possible error authenticating: Missing parameter(s):
Set an authentication URL, with --os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url

ERROR: openstack Missing parameter(s):
Set an authentication URL, with --os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url

This matches what I saw in the code, so it’s the installed version that is older code. While user, service and keypair lists returns the same message volume and catalog still do not.

(.venv)rbradfor@octogon:~/python-openstackclient$ openstack volume list
WARNING: openstackclient.shell Possible error authenticating: Missing parameter(s):
Set an authentication URL, with --os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url

ERROR: openstack unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'NoneType' and 'str'

(.venv)rbradfor@octogon:~/python-openstackclient$ openstack catalog list
WARNING: openstackclient.shell Possible error authenticating: Missing parameter(s):
Set an authentication URL, with --os-auth-url, OS_AUTH_URL or auth.auth_url

ERROR: openstack 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'auth'

Moving to OpenStackClient CLI

In working with the keynote CLI within the TripleO scripts I came across the following deprecation warning message.

$ keystone token-get
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/keystoneclient/shell.py:65: DeprecationWarning: The keystone CLI is deprecated in favor of python-openstackclient. For a Python library, continue using python-keystoneclient.
  'python-keystoneclient.', DeprecationWarning)

Time to switch to using the OpenStackClient, historically also called the unified CLI.

Very easy to install.

$ sudo pip install python-openstackclient

$ openstack help
usage: openstack help [-h] [cmd [cmd ...]]

print detailed help for another command

positional arguments:
  cmd         name of the command

optional arguments:
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

I would also suggest you add the following alias to your startup shell rc.

alias os='openstack'

The --help option also provides a much detailed list of available argument options.

$ os --help
usage: openstack [--version] [-v] [--log-file LOG_FILE] [-q] [--debug]
                 [--os-region-name ]
                 [--os-cacert ] [--verify | --insecure]
                 [--os-default-domain ] [--timing]
                 [--os-compute-api-version ]
                 [--os-network-api-version ]
                 [--os-image-api-version ]
                 [--os-volume-api-version ]
                 [--os-identity-api-version ]
                 [--os-auth-type ] [--os-username ]
                 [--os-identity-provider ]
                 [--os-project-domain-name ]
                 [--os-project-domain-id ]
                 [--os-project-name ]
                 [--os-auth-url ]
                 [--os-trust-id ]
                 [--os-service-provider-endpoint ]
                 [--os-user-domain-id ]
                 [--os-domain-name ]
                 [--os-identity-provider-url ]
                 [--os-token ] [--os-domain-id ]
                 [--os-url ]
                 [--os-user-domain-name ]
                 [--os-user-id ] [--os-password ]
                 [--os-project-id ]
                 [--os-object-api-version ] [-h]

Command-line interface to the OpenStack APIs

optional arguments:
  --version             show program's version number and exit
  -v, --verbose         Increase verbosity of output. Can be repeated.
...

The new CLI provides a number of benefits above the consolidation of syntax into a single client. There is the flexibility in formatting output, both selecting columns and output format.

Working with nova for more simple initial examples.

$ nova image-list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name                            | Status | Server |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+--------+
| a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         | ACTIVE |        |
| 557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  | ACTIVE |        |
| 1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk | ACTIVE |        |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+--------+
$ openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         |
| 1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk |
| 557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+

As you can see the Status and Server columns are not in the default format. You can access a list of columns, however both the column order, and even the contents (e.g. ACTIVE v active) means you need to adjust your existing scripts. In this case Status exists, Server does not.

$ openstack image list --long
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+------------------+----------+--------+------------+-----------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            | Disk Format | Container Format |     Size | Status | Visibility | Protected | Owner                            | Properties                                                                                          |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+------------------+----------+--------+------------+-----------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         | ami         | ami              | 25165824 | active | public     | False     | 0087dccc995e4ea3aaf209ddc8ad33e2 | kernel_id='557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d', ramdisk_id='1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189' |
| 1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk | ari         | ari              |  3723817 | active | public     | False     | 0087dccc995e4ea3aaf209ddc8ad33e2 |                                                                                                     |
| 557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  | aki         | aki              |  4969360 | active | public     | False     | 0087dccc995e4ea3aaf209ddc8ad33e2 |                                                                                                     |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+------------------+----------+--------+------------+-----------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Column Options

openstack provides the ability to pass column names, so we can try to simulate what we seen in the legacy nova client.

$ openstack image list -c ID
+--------------------------------------+
| ID                                   |
+--------------------------------------+
| 1b79bbb2-e8b6-430f-8cb7-ced8f3589807 |
| e52bd241-db30-40e2-9230-40f21ff3e4c7 |
| 59e28cdf-c4af-4b02-bdeb-3779ec4c306d |
+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack image list -c ID -c Name
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| 1b79bbb2-e8b6-430f-8cb7-ced8f3589807 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         |
| e52bd241-db30-40e2-9230-40f21ff3e4c7 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk |
| 59e28cdf-c4af-4b02-bdeb-3779ec4c306d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+

$ openstack image list -c ID -c Name -c Status
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| 1b79bbb2-e8b6-430f-8cb7-ced8f3589807 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         |
| e52bd241-db30-40e2-9230-40f21ff3e4c7 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk |
| 59e28cdf-c4af-4b02-bdeb-3779ec4c306d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+

The Status column which is in both nova and openstack output above seems to provide no output or even an error. However if specified as the only individual column it draws an expected error message.

stack@ubuntu:~$ openstack image list -c Status
ERROR: openstack No recognized column names in ['Status']

Not knowing what the actual list of valid columns are, as it does not match the --long output we move on.

Update 4/23/15
It pays to read the source code, specifically openstackclient/image/v2/image.py. In order to list additional columns you must also specify --long.

$ python openstackclient/shell.py image list --long -c ID -c Name -c Status
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name                            | Status |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| c5153c2b-df9c-488c-995e-5cb347c0ee35 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         | active |
| ac7e0c04-e47c-43da-ba28-b0d47d293eb7 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk | active |
| 52cc99f5-a9aa-4f27-98b8-d8ec762a246d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  | active |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+--------+

I should also point out that column names are Case Sensitive. Id is not valid.

$ python openstackclient/shell.py image list --long -c Id -c Name -c Status
+---------------------------------+--------+
| Name                            | Status |
+---------------------------------+--------+
| cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         | active |
| cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk | active |
| cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  | active |
+---------------------------------+--------+

Format Options

One cool feature is the formatting options. There are currently 6 types.

TABLE

$ openstack image list --format table
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         |
| 1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk |
| 557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+

CSV

$ openstack image list --format csv
"ID","Name"
"a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e","cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec"
"1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189","cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk"
"557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d","cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel"

JSON

$ openstack image list --format json | python -m json.tool
[
    {
        "ID": "1b79bbb2-e8b6-430f-8cb7-ced8f3589807",
        "Name": "cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec"
    },
    {
        "ID": "e52bd241-db30-40e2-9230-40f21ff3e4c7",
        "Name": "cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk"
    },
    {
        "ID": "59e28cdf-c4af-4b02-bdeb-3779ec4c306d",
        "Name": "cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel"
    }
]

HTML

$ openstack image list --format html
<table>
<thead>
<tr><th>ID</th>
<th>Name</th></tr>
</thead>
<tr><td>a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e</td>
<td>cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec</td></tr>
<tr><td>1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189</td>
<td>cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk</td></tr>
<tr><td>557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d</td>
<td>cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel</td></tr>
</table>

YAML

$ openstack image list --format yaml
- {ID: a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e, Name: cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec}
- {ID: 1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189, Name: cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk}
- {ID: 557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d, Name: cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel}

SHELL

$ openstack image list --format shell
usage: openstack image list [-h] [-f {csv,html,json,table,yaml}] [-c COLUMN]
                            [--max-width ]
                            [--quote {all,minimal,none,nonnumeric}]
                            [--public | --private] [--property ]
                            [--long] [--sort [:]]
openstack image list: error: argument -f/--format: invalid choice: 'shell' (choose from 'csv', 'html', 'json', 'table', 'yaml')

As you can see shell is invalid for the list argument, however it is valid for the show argument.

$ openstack image show a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e
+------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field            | Value                                                                                                           |
+------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| checksum         | 4eada48c2843d2a262c814ddc92ecf2c                                                                                |
| container_format | ami                                                                                                             |
| created_at       | 2015-03-31T19:42:53.000000                                                                                      |
| deleted          | False                                                                                                           |
| disk_format      | ami                                                                                                             |
| id               | a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e                                                                            |
| is_public        | True                                                                                                            |
| min_disk         | 0                                                                                                               |
| min_ram          | 0                                                                                                               |
| name             | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec                                                                                         |
| owner            | 0087dccc995e4ea3aaf209ddc8ad33e2                                                                                |
| properties       | {u'kernel_id': u'557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d', u'ramdisk_id': u'1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189'} |
| protected        | False                                                                                                           |
| size             | 25165824                                                                                                        |
| status           | active                                                                                                          |
| updated_at       | 2015-03-31T19:42:54.000000                                                                                      |
+------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
$ openstack image show a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e --format=shell
checksum="4eada48c2843d2a262c814ddc92ecf2c"
container_format="ami"
created_at="2015-03-31T19:42:53.000000"
deleted="False"
disk_format="ami"
id="a8672506-049f-4fda-bc58-e64a646d587e"
is_public="True"
min_disk="0"
min_ram="0"
name="cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec"
owner="0087dccc995e4ea3aaf209ddc8ad33e2"
properties="{u'kernel_id': u'557dec3a-f912-430c-bda1-ace9c669b78d', u'ramdisk_id': u'1d9b6c2e-96d9-4426-a98d-7fa378c26189'}"
protected="False"
size="25165824"
status="active"
updated_at="2015-03-31T19:42:54.000000"

Interactive

The CLI also provides an interactive shell.

$ openstack
(openstack) image list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                            |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| 1b79bbb2-e8b6-430f-8cb7-ced8f3589807 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec         |
| e52bd241-db30-40e2-9230-40f21ff3e4c7 | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-ramdisk |
| 59e28cdf-c4af-4b02-bdeb-3779ec4c306d | cirros-0.3.2-x86_64-uec-kernel  |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
(openstack) quit

Writing re-runable shell script

I recently started playing with devstack again (An all-in-on OpenStack developer setup). Last time was over 3 years ago because I remember a pull request for a missing dependency at the time.

The installation docs provide information to bootstrap your system with a necessary user and privileges, however like many docs for software setup they contain one off instructions.

adduser stack
echo "stack ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL" >> /etc/sudoers

When you write operations code you need to always be thinking about “testability” and “automation”. It is important to write re-runable code. You should always write parameterized code when possible, which can be refactored into usable functions at any time.

This is a good example to demonstrate a simple test condition for making the initial instructions re-runable.

sudo su -
NEW_USER="stack"
# This creates default group of same username
# This creates user with default HOME in /home/stack
[ `grep ${NEW_USER} /etc/passwd | wc -l` -eq 0 ] && useradd -s /bin/bash -m ${NEW_USER}
NEW_USER_SUDO_FILE="/etc/sudoers.d/${NEW_USER}"
[ ! -s ${NEW_USER_SUDO_FILE} ] && umask 226 && echo "${NEW_USER} ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL" > ${NEW_USER_SUDO_FILE}
ls -l ${NEW_USER_SUDO_FILE}