Archive for February, 2009

Planet MySQL at a new URL

Thursday, February 26th, 2009

Did anybody notice that http://planetmysql.org now redirects to http://planet.mysql.com?

Curious to know the reason why, perhaps an official MySQL person can give us some details.
Also it’s a 302 redirect, not a 301 redirect, interesting?

 wget http://planetmysql.org
--2009-02-26 14:40:09--  http://planetmysql.org/
Resolving planetmysql.org... 213.136.52.29
Connecting to planetmysql.org|213.136.52.29|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 301 Moved Permanently
Location: http://www.planetmysql.org/ [following]
--2009-02-26 14:40:10--  http://www.planetmysql.org/
Resolving www.planetmysql.org... 213.136.52.29
Connecting to www.planetmysql.org|213.136.52.29|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 302 Found
Location: http://planet.mysql.com/ [following]
--2009-02-26 14:40:10--  http://planet.mysql.com/
Resolving planet.mysql.com... 213.136.52.29
Connecting to planet.mysql.com|213.136.52.29|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: unspecified [text/html]

Eliminating unnecessary internal temporary tables

Wednesday, February 25th, 2009

I can’t stress enough that people look at SQL statements that are being executed against your production MySQL database, and you optimize queries when you can.

Often it’s the improvement to the large number of similar queries executed that can optimize resources. In this example, we take a very simple query, and by removing an unnecessary order by, we eliminate MySQL internally creating a temporary (in memory) table.

So what’s the big deal.

  • The query is simpler to read and understand
  • Memory required for the connection is not assigned
  • A number of internal steps are no longer required (4 of 21 logging messages, not an ideal measurement, but an indication). In this case, it was easily a 10% performance improvement for each query.

This query is executed 10-100 times per second, so the improvement in performance is significant.

mysql> explain select max(mdate) as mdate from tbl  where original_account = 'xxx@msn.com' and id = '15847' order by mdate desc;
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
| id | select_type | table                | type | possible_keys        | key              | key_len | ref         | rows | Extra                        |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | tbl                  | ref  | ids,original_account | original_account | 388     | const,const |  146 | Using where; Using temporary |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> explain select max(mdate) as mdate from tbl  where original_account = 'xxx@msn.com' and id = '15847';
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table                | type | possible_keys        | key              | key_len | ref         | rows | Extra       |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | tbl                  | ref  | ids,original_account | original_account | 388     | const,const |  146 | Using where |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> show profile cpu,memory,source for query 1;
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| Status                         | Duration | CPU_user | CPU_system | Source_function           | Source_file   | Source_line |
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| (initialization)               | 0.00001  | 0        | 0          | send_result_to_client     | sql_cache.cc  |        1143 |
| checking query cache for query | 0.000079 | 0        | 0          | open_tables               | sql_base.cc   |        2652 |
| Opening tables                 | 0.000024 | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         153 |
| System lock                    | 0.000015 | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         163 |
| Table lock                     | 0.000041 | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2282 |
| init                           | 0.000046 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         765 |
| optimizing                     | 0.000027 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         924 |
| statistics                     | 0.000173 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         934 |
| preparing                      | 0.000028 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |        1383 |
| Creating tmp table             | 0.000053 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1603 |
| executing                      | 0.000011 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1743 |
| Copying to tmp table           | 0.002226 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        2123 |
| Sending data                   | 0.000148 | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2327 |
| end                            | 0.000013 | 0        | 0          | free_tmp_table            | sql_select.cc |       10115 |
| removing tmp table             | 0.000064 | 0        | 0          | free_tmp_table            | sql_select.cc |       10143 |
| end                            | 0.000014 | 0        | 0          | mysql_execute_command     | sql_parse.cc  |        5154 |
| query end                      | 0.000012 | 0        | 0          | query_cache_end_of_result | sql_cache.cc  |         735 |
| storing result in query cache  | 0.000047 | 0        | 0          | mysql_parse               | sql_parse.cc  |        6155 |
| freeing items                  | 0.000021 | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2146 |
| closing tables                 | 0.000014 | 0        | 0          | log_slow_statement        | sql_parse.cc  |        2204 |
| logging slow query             | 0.000011 | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2169 |
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
21 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> show profile cpu,memory,source for query 2;
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| Status                         | Duration  | CPU_user | CPU_system | Source_function           | Source_file   | Source_line |
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| (initialization)               | 0.000021  | 0        | 0          | send_result_to_client     | sql_cache.cc  |        1143 |
| checking query cache for query | 0.000090  | 0        | 0          | open_tables               | sql_base.cc   |        2652 |
| Opening tables                 | 0.000022  | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         153 |
| System lock                    | 0.000014  | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         163 |
| Table lock                     | 0.000044  | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2282 |
| init                           | 0.000049  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         765 |
| optimizing                     | 0.000028  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         924 |
| statistics                     | 0.000179  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         934 |
| preparing                      | 0.000029  | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1603 |
| executing                      | 0.000016  | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        2123 |
| Sending data                   | 0.00229   | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2327 |
| end                            | 0.000039  | 0        | 0          | mysql_execute_command     | sql_parse.cc  |        5154 |
| query end                      | 0.000012  | 0        | 0          | query_cache_end_of_result | sql_cache.cc  |         735 |
| storing result in query cache  | 0.000011  | 0        | 0          | mysql_parse               | sql_parse.cc  |        6155 |
| freeing items                  | 0.00002   | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2146 |
| closing tables                 | 0.000014  | 0        | 0          | log_slow_statement        | sql_parse.cc  |        2204 |
| logging slow query             | 0.00001   | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2169 |
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
17 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Announcing “MySQL Essentials” Training

Tuesday, February 24th, 2009

Are you having problems getting up to speed on MySQL? Are you asking yourself “Is there a hands-on training course we can send a developer/system admin to learn MySQL?”. In response, at 42SQL we have put together two new training courses, MySQL Essentials and MySQL Operations.

MySQL Essentials Training Details

With MySQL Essentials we tackle the core essentials that a developer/system admin/junior DBA would require in order to support an initial development environment that uses MySQL. Essentials training teaches the following skills:

  • Which version of MySQL to use (including the various different variants and patches available)
  • Backup, retention, and recovery strategies
  • Configuration and Monitoring of MySQL
  • Optimal schema and data objects configuration management
  • more information here

We are now accepting registrations for MySQL Essentials training being held on April 1st – 2nd in New York, and April 6th – 7 th in Washington DC.

About the presenter

Ronald Bradford is a two-decade veteran with extensive database experience in MySQL, Oracle and Ingres. His expertise covers data architecture, software development, migration, performance analysis and production system implementations. With ten years experience in MySQL, his involvement in the MySQL ecosystem has included working as Senior Consultant with MySQL Inc, speaker at four MySQL Conferences, and creator of the “MySQL for Oracle DBA’s” one-day workshop. Ronald holds MySQL Certifications including DBA 5.0, Developer 5.0 and MySQL Cluster 5.1.

The art of looking at the actual SQL statements

Tuesday, February 24th, 2009

It’s a shame that MySQL does not provide better granularity when you want to look at all SQL statements being executed in a MySQL server. I canvas that you can with the general log, but the inherit starting/stopping problems in 5.0, improved in 5.1, but I would still like to see the option on a per connection basis, or even a time period. MySQL Proxy can provide a solution here but also with some caveats.

You should however in a NON production environment, take the time to enable the general log and look the SQL Statements. Prior to looking at the SQL, monitoring of the GLOBAL STATUS variables combined with Statpack revealed the following in a 1 minute interval.

====================================================================================================
                                         Statement Activity
====================================================================================================

                     SELECT:           16,042                   267.37                8,177,050 (46.03%)
                     INSERT:            5,838                    97.30                1,826,616 (10.28%)
                     UPDATE:            1,109                    18.48                  738,546 (4.16%)
                     DELETE:            2,018                    33.63                1,374,983 (7.74%)
                    REPLACE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
          INSERT ... SELECT:                0                     0.00                       27 (0.00%)
         REPLACE ... SELECT:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
               Multi UPDATE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
               Multi DELETE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
                     COMMIT:            5,708                    95.13                2,161,232 (12.17%)
                   ROLLBACK:            5,746                    95.77                3,485,828 (19.62%)

If you notice the last 2 lines, some 19% of statements executed on the server are ROLLBACK. Further analysis of the schema shows mainly Innodb tables (good as COMMIT and ROLLBACK are supported), but also some MyISAM tables.

The following is a snippet from the general log.

                     23 Query       select 1
                     23 Query       INSERT INTO JMS_TRANSACTIONS (TXID) values(17719)
                     23 Query       UPDATE JMS_MESSAGES SET TXID=17719, TXOP='D' WHERE MESSAGEID=16248 AND DESTINATION='QUEUE.receivemail'
                     23 Query       commit
                     23 Query       rollback
                     23 Query       select 1
                     23 Query       DELETE FROM JMS_MESSAGES WHERE TXID=17719 AND TXOP='D'
                     23 Query       DELETE FROM JMS_TRANSACTIONS WHERE TXID = 17719
                     23 Query       commit
                     23 Query       rollback

This turns out to be most interesting. These tables are use by Java Messaging Service but I observed three points.

  • the ‘select 1′ is effectively a ping test to confirm the connection is still valid. MySQL provides a more lightweight COM_PING. It would be good to know if this environment using JBoss could support that.
  • There is a ‘ROLLBACK’ after every command, totally redundant, and most likely part of higher level framework.
  • The ‘COMMIT’ is used in conjunction with a number of statements, however when I mentioned earlier some tables were MyISAM, these were the JMS tables, so in this situation the commit is useless as this is not a transactional storage engine.

A number of decisions are needed to correct this problem, however the point of raising this is, always look at the your SQL.

Watching a slave catchup

Tuesday, February 24th, 2009

This neat one line command can be of interest when you are rebuilding a MySQL slave and replication is currently catching up.

$ watch --interval=1 --differences 'mysql -uuser -ppassword -e "show slave status\G"'

You will see the standard SHOW SLAVE STATUS output, but the watch command presents an updated view every second, and highlights differences. This can be useful in a background window to keep an eye on those ‘Seconds Behind Master’.

*************************** 1. row ***************************
             Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                Master_Host: 10.10.10.10
                Master_User: slave
                Master_Port: 3306
              Connect_Retry: 60
            Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000626
        Read_Master_Log_Pos: 88159239
             Relay_Log_File: slave-relay.000005
              Relay_Log_Pos: 426677632
      Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000621
           Slave_IO_Running: Yes
          Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
            Replicate_Do_DB:
        Replicate_Ignore_DB:
         Replicate_Do_Table:
     Replicate_Ignore_Table:
    Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
                 Last_Errno: 0
                 Last_Error:
               Skip_Counter: 0
        Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 426677495
            Relay_Log_Space: 2714497549
            Until_Condition: None
             Until_Log_File:
              Until_Log_Pos: 0
         Master_SSL_Allowed: No
         Master_SSL_CA_File:
         Master_SSL_CA_Path:
            Master_SSL_Cert:
          Master_SSL_Cipher:
             Master_SSL_Key:
      Seconds_Behind_Master: 24131

Some Drupal observations

Monday, February 23rd, 2009

I had the opportunity to review a client’s production Drupal installation recently. This is a new site and traffic is just starting to pick up. Drupal is a popular LAMP stack open source CMS system using the MySQL Database.

Unfortunately I don’t always have the chance to focus on one product when consulting, sometimes the time can be minutes to a few hours. Some observations from looking at Drupal.

Disk footprint

Presently, volume and content is of a low volume, but expecting to ramp up. I do however find 90% of disk volume in one table called ‘watchdog’;


+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| table_schema | total_mb     | data_mb      | index_mb    | tables |
+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| xxxxx        | 812.95555878 | 745.34520721 | 67.61035156 |    191 |
+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+

+-------------------------------------------+--------+------------+------------+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
| table_name                                | engine | row_format | table_rows | avg_row_length | total_mb     | data_mb      | index_mb    |
+-------------------------------------------+--------+------------+------------+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
| watchdog                                  | MyISAM | Dynamic    |      63058 |            210 | 636.42242813 | 607.72516251 | 28.69726563 |
| cache_menu                                | MyISAM | Dynamic    |        145 |         124892 |  25.33553696 |  25.32577133 |  0.00976563 |
| search_index                              | MyISAM | Dynamic    |     472087 |             36 |  23.40134048 |  16.30759048 |  7.09375000 |
| comments                                  | MyISAM | Dynamic    |      98272 |            208 |  21.83272934 |  19.58272934 |  2.25000000 |

Investigating the content of the ‘watchdog’ table shows detailed logging. Drilling down just on the key ‘type’ records shows the following.

mysql> select message,count(*) from watchdog where type='page not found' group by message order by 2 desc limit 10;
+--------------------------------------+----------+
| message                              | count(*) |
+--------------------------------------+----------+
| content/images/loadingAnimation.gif  |    17198 |
| see/images/loadingAnimation.gif      |     6659 |
| images/loadingAnimation.gif          |     6068 |
| node/images/loadingAnimation.gif     |     2774 |
| favicon.ico                          |     1772 |
| sites/all/modules/coppa/coppa.js     |      564 |
| users/images/loadingAnimation.gif    |      365 |
| syndicate/google-analytics.com/ga.js |      295 |
| content/img_pos_funny_lowsrc.gif     |      230 |
| content/google-analytics.com/ga.js   |      208 |
+--------------------------------------+----------+
10 rows in set (2.42 sec)

Some 25% of rows is just the reporting one missing file. Correcting this one file cuts down a pile of unnecessary logging.

Repeating Queries

Looking at just 1 random second of SQL logging shows 1200+ SELECT statements.
355 are SELECT changed FROM node

$ grep would_you_rather drupal.1second.log
              7 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              5 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              3 Query       SELECT field_image_textarea_value AS value FROM content_type_would_you_rather WHERE vid = 24303 LIMIT 0, 1
              4 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              6 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
             10 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              9 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              8 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              9 Query       SELECT field_image_textarea_value AS value FROM content_type_would_you_rather WHERE vid = 24303 LIMIT 0, 1

There is plenty of information regarding monitoring the Slow Queries in MySQL, but I have also promoted that’s it not the slow queries that ultimately slow a system down, but the 1000′s of repeating fast queries.

MySQL of course has the Query Cache to assist, but this is a course grade solution, and a high volume read/write environment this is meaningless.

There is a clear need for either a application level caching, or a database redesign to pull rather then poll this information, however without more in depth review of Drupal I can not make any judgment calls.

Best Practices in Migrating to MySQL

Sunday, February 22nd, 2009

This week I was the invited speaker to give a 4 hr presentation to the Federal Government Sector in Washington DC on “Best Practices in Migrating to MySQL“. This was a followup to my day long “MySQL for the Oracle DBA Bootcamp” which I presented in Washington DC last year. It was good to see a number of attendees from my first DC presentation.

There was good attendance across various government departments and companies providing services to the government sector, as well a variety of job descriptions.

Thanks to Carahsoft and Sun/MySQL for organizing and sponsoring the event. Thanks also to Phil Hildebrand who provided fantastic support during my preparation answering all my SQL Server questions.

Thanks also to Baron Schwartz creator of Maatkit who as my invited guest was nice enough to table a list of attendee questions, which is always a good reference for revising slides and writing more blog posts.

You can find the first of seven sessions online in my presentations section.

Updated
Thanks to Baron Schwartz for his follow-up blog posts Migrating US Government applications from Oracle to MySQL and 50 things to know before migrating Oracle to MySQL.

Strict mode can still throw warnings

Wednesday, February 11th, 2009

MySQL by default is vary lax with data validation. Silent conversions is a concept that is not a common practice in other databases. In MySQL, instead of throwing an error, a warning was thrown and many applications simply did not handle warnings. With the introduction of sql_mode=STRICT_ALL_TABLES (or TRADITIONAL), in MySQL 5, a better level of validation now exists.

My understanding was that Warnings are now thrown as Errors, therefore eliminating the need to do a SHOW WARNINGS to confirm any problems after every query (this is a performance overhead on a high volume system due to the round trip latency).

However I found an instance where MySQL in STRICT Mode still throws warnings, leading to the question, are there any other areas, and does the earlier statement “Warnings are now thrown as Errors” hold true.

Here is my seeding process to showing the problem.

mysql> create table i(i tinyint, unique key( i));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> insert into i values(999);
Query OK, 1 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Using default settings, attempting to INSERT a duplicate row throws an error, using INSERT IGNORE does not.

mysql> insert into i values(999);
ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry '127' for key 'i'
mysql> insert ignore into i values(999);
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> show warnings;
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                    |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i' at row 1 |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

When using a Strict Mode, a recommendation for all new systems, it is generally accepted that warnings are translated into errors, which implies your could should never have to consider checking for warnings.

mysql> truncate table i;
mysql> set sql_mode=strict_all_tables;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into i values(999);
ERROR 1264 (22003): Out of range value for column 'i' at row 1
mysql> insert ignore into i values(999);
Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> show warnings;
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                    |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i' at row 1 |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> set sql_mode=traditional;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert ignore into i values(9990);
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> show warnings;
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Level   | Code | Message                                    |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1264 | Out of range value for column 'i' at row 1 |
+---------+------+--------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

I should caveat this post also with using caution with INSERT IGNORE. This should only be used if you never care about errors which I would never consider as a best practice design approach.

Reducing the MySQL 5.1.30 disk footprint

Wednesday, February 11th, 2009

The current size of a MySQL 5.1.30 installation is around 420M.

$ du -sh .
426M	.

A further breakdown.

$ du -sh *
213M	bin
20K	COPYING
9.8M	docs
8.0K	EXCEPTIONS-CLIENT
436K	include
12K	INSTALL-BINARY
121M	lib
504K	man
4.0K	my.cnf
77M	mysql-test
4.0K	README
20K	scripts
2.3M	share
2.9M	sql-bench
100K	support-files

A means to reduce the footprint by 25% is to delete some unused stuff.

$ rm -rf docs/ mysql-test/ sql-bench/
$ du -sh .
337M	.

It’s no big deal, however it certainly does cut down on verbose output in the backup logs removing the mysql-test directory and files.

Best practices for migrating applications to MySQL

Monday, February 2nd, 2009

In just over 2 weeks I’ll be the invited speaker in Washington DC to Best practices for migrating applications to MySQL. This workshop is being held in conjunction with Carahsoft and Sun/MySQL and aims to provide to the Federal sector valuable information for the continued usage and uptake of Open Source and specifically MySQL.

As part of my preparation I’m happy to hear from any organizations that have successfully migrated from Oracle/SQL Server/Informix/Sybase etc to MySQL and would like to be cited.

While I have been involved in the process I am also happy to hear of reasons why a migration failed, was aborted or postponed. This is all valuable information in determining what are the most ideal applications.