Announcing Drizzle on EC2

I have published the very first sharable Drizzle Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for AWS EC2, based on the good feedback from my discussion at the Drizzle Developer Day on what options we should try.

This first version is a 32bit Developer instance, showcasing Drizzle and all necessary developer tools to build Drizzle from source.

What you will find on drizzle-ami/intrepid-dev32 – ami-b858bfd1

Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid 32 bit base server installation:

  • build tools
  • drizzle dependencies
  • bzr 1.31.1

From the respective source trees the following software is available:

  • drizzle 2009.04.997
  • libdrizzle 0.0.2
  • gearman 0.0.4
  • memcached 1.2.8
  • libmemcached 0.28

Drizzle has been configured with necessary dependencies for PAM authentication, http_auth, libgearman and MD5 but these don’t seem to be available in the binary distribution.

I will be creating additional AMI’s including 64bit and LAMP ready binary only images.

The following example shows using drizzle on this AMI. Some further work is necessary for full automation, parameters and logging. I’ve raised a number of issues the Drizzle Developers are now hard at work on.

1. Starting Drizzle

ssh ubuntu@ec2-xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx.compute-1.amazonaws.com
sudo /etc/init.d/drizzle-server.init start &

2. Testing Drizzle (the sakila database has been installed)

$ drizzle
Welcome to the Drizzle client..  Commands end with ; or g.
Your Drizzle connection id is 4
Server version: 2009.04.997 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the buffer.

drizzle> select version();
+-------------+
| version()   |
+-------------+
| 2009.04.997 |
+-------------+
1 row in set (0 sec)

drizzle> select count(*) from sakila.film;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|     1000 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0 sec)

3. Compiling Drizzle

sudo su - drizzle
ls
deploy  drizzle  libdrizzle  sakila-drizzle
cd drizzle
./configure --help
Description of plugins:

   === HTTP Authentication Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      auth_http
  Description:      HTTP based authentications
  Supports build:   static and dynamic

   === PAM Authenication Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      auth_pam
  Description:      PAM based authenication.
  Supports build:   dynamic

   === compression UDFs ===
  Plugin Name:      compression
  Description:      UDF Plugin for compression
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Status:           mandatory

   === crc32 UDF ===
  Plugin Name:      crc32
  Description:      UDF Plugin for crc32
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Status:           mandatory

   === Error Message Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      errmsg_stderr
  Description:      Errmsg Plugin that sends messages to stderr.
  Supports build:   dynamic

   === Daemon Example Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      hello_world
  Description:      UDF Plugin for Hello World.
  Supports build:   dynamic

   === Gearman Logging Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      logging_gearman
  Description:      Logging Plugin that logs to Gearman.
  Supports build:   dynamic

   === Query Logging Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      logging_query
  Description:      Logging Plugin that logs all queries.
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Status:           mandatory

   === Syslog Logging Plugin ===
  Plugin Name:      logging_syslog
  Description:      Logging Plugin that writes to syslog.
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Status:           mandatory

   === MD5 UDF ===
  Plugin Name:      md5
  Description:      UDF Plugin for MD5
  Supports build:   static and dynamic

   === One Thread Per Connection Scheduler ===
  Plugin Name:      multi_thread
  Description:      plugin for multi_thread
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Old libdrizzle Protocol ===
  Plugin Name:      oldlibdrizzle
  Description:      plugin for oldlibdrizzle
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Pool of Threads Scheduler ===
  Plugin Name:      pool_of_threads
  Description:      plugin for pool_of_threads
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Default Signal Handler ===
  Plugin Name:      signal_handler
  Description:      plugin for signal_handler
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Single Thread Scheduler ===
  Plugin Name:      single_thread
  Description:      plugin for single_thread
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Archive Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      archive
  Description:      Archive Storage Engine
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Blackhole Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      blackhole
  Description:      Basic Write-only Read-never tables
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Configurations:   max, max-no-ndb

   === CSV Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      csv
  Description:      Stores tables in text CSV format
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === Memory Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      heap
  Description:      Volatile memory based tables
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory

   === InnoDB Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      innobase
  Description:      Transactional Tables using InnoDB
  Supports build:   static and dynamic
  Configurations:   max, max-no-ndb
  Status:           mandatory

   === MyISAM Storage Engine ===
  Plugin Name:      myisam
  Description:      Traditional non-transactional MySQL tables
  Supports build:   static
  Status:           mandatory


Report bugs to <http://bugs.launchpad.net/drizzle>.

Compiling libdrizzle

Compiling libdrizzle is a rather trivial task. The following are the steps I undertook on Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid 32 bit.

There was one pre-requisite from the most basic installed developer tools.

sudo apt-get install -y  automake
bzr clone lp:libdrizzle
cd libdrizzle
./config/autorun.sh
./configure
make
make install

And there they are:

$ ls -l /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1122710 2009-04-26 18:10 /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root     940 2009-04-26 18:10 /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      19 2009-04-26 18:10 /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle.so -> libdrizzle.so.0.0.2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      19 2009-04-26 18:10 /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle.so.0 -> libdrizzle.so.0.0.2
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1003734 2009-04-26 18:10 /usr/local/lib/libdrizzle.so.0.0.2

I added the following to enable other programs using libdrizzle to find the libraries in the system path.

echo "/usr/local/lib" > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/drizzle.conf
ldconfig

Drizzle/bzr dependency

A number of developers had problems on Friday at the Drizzle Developer Day with compiling bzr. The distro in question I was helping with was CentOS 5 32-bit. I had no issues on CentOS 5 64bit.

Today while creating the first deployed Drizzle AWS AMI I discovered the same problem using Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid 32 bit.

The solution was actually rather trivial. Installing the python-dev package solved the problem.

apt-get install python-dev
Bzr 1.13.1 Compiling error

building 'bzrlib._btree_serializer_c' extension
gcc -pthread -fno-strict-aliasing -DNDEBUG -g -fwrapv -O2 -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -fPIC -I/usr/include/python2.5 -c bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c -o build/temp.linux-i686-2.5/bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.o
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:4:20: error: Python.h: No such file or directory
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:5:26: error: structmember.h: No such file or directory
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:35: error: expected specifier-qualifier-list before ‘PyObject’
....
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:1651: error: request for member ‘f_lineno’ in something not a structure or union
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:1651: warning: statement with no effect
bzrlib/_btree_serializer_c.c:1652: warning: implicit declaration of function ‘PyTraceBack_Here’

  Cannot build extension "bzrlib._btree_serializer_c".
  Use "build_ext --allow-python-fallback" to use slower python implementations instead.

error: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1

Adding a Drizzle Plugin

I joined about 50 others including a number of core MySQL developers and MySQL community members today for the 2009 Drizzle developers day at Sun Microsystems Santa Clara campus.

In addition to a number of presentations and various group discussions most of my individual hacking time was under the guidance of Drizzle team developer Stewart Smith were Patrick Galbraith and myself started the porting of Patrick’s memcached UDF functions for MySQL.

Leveraging some existing Drizzle plugin’s such as CRC32() and UNCOMPRESS() we were easily able to navigate the src/plugin/memcached directory plug.in, Makefile.am and drizzle_declare_plugin definition in the new get.cc to get a working stub ‘Hello World Example';

plug.in

$ more plug.in
DRIZZLE_PLUGIN(memcached,[memcached UDF],
        [UDF Plugin for memcached])
DRIZZLE_PLUGIN_STATIC(memcached,   [libmemcachedudf.a])
DRIZZLE_PLUGIN_MANDATORY(memcached)  dnl Default
DRIZZLE_PLUGIN_DYNAMIC(memcached,   [libmemcachedudf.la])

Makefile.am
$ more Makefile.am
# Copyright (C) 2006 MySQL AB
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

EXTRA_LTLIBRARIES =	libmemcachedudf.la
pkgplugin_LTLIBRARIES =	@plugin_memcached_shared_target@
libmemcachedudf_la_LDFLAGS =	-module -avoid-version -rpath $(pkgplugindir)
libmemcachedudf_la_LIBADD =		$(LIBZ)
libmemcachedudf_la_CPPFLAGS=	$(AM_CPPFLAGS) -DDRIZZLE_DYNAMIC_PLUGIN
libmemcachedudf_la_SOURCES =	get.cc


EXTRA_LIBRARIES =	libmemcachedudf.a
noinst_LIBRARIES =	@plugin_memcached_static_target@
libmemcachedudf_a_SOURCES=	$(libmemcachedudf_la_SOURCES)
$ more get.cc
/* Copyright (C) 2009 Patrick Galbraith, Ronald Bradford
...
*/
#include <drizzled/server_includes.h>
#include <drizzled/sql_udf.h>
#include <drizzled/item/func.h>
#include <drizzled/function/str/strfunc.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <libmemcached/memcached.h>

using namespace std;

/* memc_get */
class Item_funcmemc_get : public Item_str_func
{
public:
  Item_funcmemc_get() : Item_str_func() {}
  const char *func_name() const { return "memc_get"; }
  bool check_argument_count(int n) { return (n==1); }
  String *val_str(String*);
  void fix_length_and_dec() {
    max_length=32;
    args[0]->collation.set(
      get_charset_by_csname(args[0]->collation.collation->csname,
                            MY_CS_BINSORT), DERIVATION_COERCIBLE);
  }

};


String *Item_funcmemc_get::val_str(String *str)
{
  assert(fixed == 1);
  String * sptr= args[0]->val_str(str);
  str->set_charset(&my_charset_bin);
  if (sptr)
  {
    null_value=0;
    str->set("hello memcached test", 20,system_charset_info);
    return str;
  }
  null_value=1;
  return 0;
}


Create_function memc_get_factory(string("memc_get"));

static int memcached_plugin_init(PluginRegistry &registry)
{
  registry.add(&memc_get_factory);
  return 0;
}

drizzle_declare_plugin(memcached)
{
  "memcached",
  "0.1",
  "Patrick Galbraith, Ronald Bradford",
  "memcached plugin",
  PLUGIN_LICENSE_GPL,
  memcached_plugin_init, /* Plugin Init */
  NULL,   /* Plugin Deinit */
  NULL,   /* status variables */
  NULL,   /* system variables */
  NULL    /* config options */
}
drizzle_declare_plugin_end;

Setting up MySQL on Amazon Web Services (AWS) Presentation

On Tuesday at the MySQL Camp 2009 in Santa Clara I presented Setting up MySQL on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

This presentation assumed you know nothing about AWS, and have no account. With Internet access via a Browser and a valid Credit Card, you can have your own running Web Server on the Internet in under 10 minutes, just point and click.

We also step into some more detail online click and point and supplied command line tools to demonstrate some more advanced usage.

Where is the MySQL in Sun's announcement

I find it surprising that in the official Sun Announcement there is no mention of MySQL for two reasons. Firstly, this was Sun largest single purchase of $1 billion only 12 months ago. Second, MySQL’s largest competitor is Oracle.

While the Sun website shows the news in grandeur, the MySQL website is noticeably absent in any information of it’s owners’ acquisition.

On my professional side, as an independent speaker for Sun Microsystems with plans for upcoming webinars and future speaking on “Best Practices in Migrating to MySQL from Oracle”, this news does not benefit my bottom line.

mysql.com search is so broken

Today, while on the MySQL manual page, I typed in ‘select’ in the search manual box to confirm the SELECT syntax.

The result was not what I expected, the “SELECT” command. Instead I only got two options “Speed of SELECT …” and “Optimizing SELECT and …”.

Ok, well that’s not what I want, there is a suggestion box to the right so I pick the top option “mysql select”. Not only is this worse with “Type Conversion in …”, “Searching on Two Keys” I also get 3 totally useless “Keymatch” records

Download MySQL -http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/
MySQL Training – http://www.mysql.com/training/ KeyMatch
Buy MySQL Enterprise -http://shop.mysql.com/enterprise/

I know in the past just entering ‘SELECT’ worked, because I’ve been presently writing tests on JOIN syntax and I wanted to link in my blog reference.

Images of my searches.


Developing Code Coverage for MySQL tests

I have always been a strong advocate of good testing of any system. I started on a project last year with Drizzle to produce coverage tests to facilitate verifying syntax and helping in comparison with MySQL.

From my extensive experience in code generation from the past 20 years, I produced about 3 years ago when at MySQL Professional Services a Java based solution with a small meta language to automated the creation of a large number of tests. At the time is was some 475 tests and 200k lines of mysql-test syntax when I first looked at validating the Nitro Storage Engine.

A number of issues with mysql-tests including the support of multiple storage engines had me last year write a Proposed Testing Protocol for Drizzle for further discussion. While the desire for improvements still exists, we can not deny the benefit of leveraging the large amount of scope the current MySQL Test Suite, and so I have started in the creation of tests in this format.

My first output is to validate all possible variants of creating various data types in MySQL. This includes the obvious datatype, but also NULL, NOT NULL syntax, sizing with (n) and (m,n), UNSIGNED and ZEROFILL. What my tests also cover is not that the syntax is valid, but also the cases where the syntax is invalid (e.g. you can use UNSIGNED for Character fields). This POC is a small example of what can be produced.

The below first test enabled me to easily confirm valid and invalid syntax within Drizzle. This for example helped in clarifying Drizzle Data Types. I hope to be able to use the same framework to confirm MariaDB syntax and MySQL compatibility.

ct_syntax_1col.test

--disable_warnings
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS t1;
--enable_warnings
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year(1) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob(1) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob(1) NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year(1) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob(1) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob(1) NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal(5,2) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float(5,2) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double(5,2) NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob(5,2) NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob(5,2) NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal(5,2) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float(5,2) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double(5,2) NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob(5,2) NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob(5,2) NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year UNSIGNED NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob UNSIGNED NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob UNSIGNED NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob UNSIGNED NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob UNSIGNED NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob ZEROFILL NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob ZEROFILL NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 smallint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 int UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bigint UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 float UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 double UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 decimal UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 year UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
SHOW CREATE TABLE t1;
DROP TABLE t1;

#Error conditions
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 bit UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 date UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 time UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 datetime UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 timestamp UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 char UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varchar UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 binary UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 varbinary UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinytext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 text UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumtext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longtext UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 tinyblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 blob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 mediumblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);
--error 1064
CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 longblob UNSIGNED ZEROFILL NULL);

A beginners look at Drizzle – Datatypes and Tables

The Drizzle database, while similar to MySQL includes a number of significant differences. In this post we will look at data types and table syntax that is valid in Drizzle. For more background information you can also review A beginners look at Drizzle – Getting around with SHOW.

Data Types

This comparison is with Drizzle 2009.03.970 and MySQL 5.1.32 GA. More information at MySQL 5.1 Data Types.

The following data types are not valid in Drizzle.

  • TINYINT
  • SMALLINT
  • MEDIUMINT
  • BIT
  • TIME
  • YEAR
  • BINARY
  • SET

Tests used the following data-types in comparison with MySQL 5.1.
TINYINT,SMALLINT,MEDIUMINT,INT,BIGINT, FLOAT,DOUBLE,DECIMAL,BIT, ENUM, SET, DATE,TIME,DATETIME,TIMESTAMP,YEAR, CHAR,VARCHAR,BINARY,VARBINARY, TEXT,TINYTEXT,MEDIUMTEXT,LONGTEXT, BLOB,TINYBLOB,MEDIUMBLOB,LONGBLOB

I’m surprised that a number of data types are still valid in Drizzle however the product is still under heavy development. My kill-list for further reducing the syntax scope would include TINYTEXT,MEDIUMTEXT,LONGTEXT, TINYBLOB,MEDIUMBLOB,LONGBLOB

Numeric sizing for INT,BIGINT,FLOAT datatypes is not supported. i.e. INT(1). Very glad about that.

The UNSIGNED and ZEROFILL syntax for Numeric datatypes are not supported.

Character Sets

Another difference is the lack of the CHARACTER SET syntax for character fields. Drizzle only supports the UTF8 character set for all text fields. This also differs from MySQL, as it is a 4 byte field, not 3 byte in MySQL.

drizzle> select * from information_schema.character_sets;
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------+--------+
| CHARACTER_SET_NAME | DEFAULT_COLLATE_NAME | DESCRIPTION   | MAXLEN |
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------+--------+
| utf8               | utf8_general_ci      | UTF-8 Unicode |      4 |
| binary             | binary               |               |      1 |
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.09 sec)

mysql> select * from information_schema.character_sets where character_set_name in ('utf8','binary');
+--------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+--------+
| CHARACTER_SET_NAME | DEFAULT_COLLATE_NAME | DESCRIPTION           | MAXLEN |
+--------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+--------+
| utf8               | utf8_general_ci      | UTF-8 Unicode         |      3 |
| binary             | binary               | Binary pseudo charset |      1 |
+--------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Collations (the COLLATE syntax) is still supported.

drizzle> select * from information_schema.collations order by 1;
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| COLLATION_NAME     | CHARACTER_SET_NAME | ID  | IS_DEFAULT | IS_COMPILED | SORTLEN |
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| binary             | binary             |  63 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_bin           | utf8               |  46 |            | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_czech_ci      | utf8               | 234 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_danish_ci     | utf8               | 235 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_esperanto_ci  | utf8               | 241 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_estonian_ci   | utf8               | 230 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_general_ci    | utf8               |  45 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_hungarian_ci  | utf8               | 242 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_icelandic_ci  | utf8               | 225 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_latvian_ci    | utf8               | 226 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_lithuanian_ci | utf8               | 236 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_persian_ci    | utf8               | 240 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_polish_ci     | utf8               | 229 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_romanian_ci   | utf8               | 227 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_roman_ci      | utf8               | 239 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_sinhala_ci    | utf8               | 243 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_slovak_ci     | utf8               | 237 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_slovenian_ci  | utf8               | 228 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_spanish2_ci   | utf8               | 238 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_spanish_ci    | utf8               | 231 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_swedish_ci    | utf8               | 232 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_turkish_ci    | utf8               | 233 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_unicode_ci    | utf8               | 224 |            | Yes         |       8 |
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
23 rows in set (0.09 sec)

mysql> select * from information_schema.collations where character_set_name in ('utf8','binary') order by 1;
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| COLLATION_NAME     | CHARACTER_SET_NAME | ID  | IS_DEFAULT | IS_COMPILED | SORTLEN |
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| binary             | binary             |  63 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_bin           | utf8               |  83 |            | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_czech_ci      | utf8               | 202 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_danish_ci     | utf8               | 203 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_esperanto_ci  | utf8               | 209 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_estonian_ci   | utf8               | 198 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_general_ci    | utf8               |  33 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| utf8_hungarian_ci  | utf8               | 210 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_icelandic_ci  | utf8               | 193 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_latvian_ci    | utf8               | 194 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_lithuanian_ci | utf8               | 204 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_persian_ci    | utf8               | 208 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_polish_ci     | utf8               | 197 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_romanian_ci   | utf8               | 195 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_roman_ci      | utf8               | 207 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_slovak_ci     | utf8               | 205 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_slovenian_ci  | utf8               | 196 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_spanish2_ci   | utf8               | 206 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_spanish_ci    | utf8               | 199 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_swedish_ci    | utf8               | 200 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_turkish_ci    | utf8               | 201 |            | Yes         |       8 |
| utf8_unicode_ci    | utf8               | 192 |            | Yes         |       8 |
+--------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
22 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Perhaps a new MySQL 6.0 collation that is in Drizzle is ‘utf8_sinhala_ci’.

Storage Engines

A key difference in Drizzle is the default storage engine. This defaults to InnoDB, rather then MyISAM. MyISAM is still currently packaged with Drizzle, however I hope that Maria becomes it’s replacement.

The MERGE and FEDERATED storage engines are not supported.
BLACKHOLE by default is not supported, however documentation indicates this can be compiled.

Table Syntax

FULLTEXT indexes which is valid for MyISAM only in MySQL is not supported.
PARTITIONS is not supported.

The following table options are still valid in Drizzle. These were only tested as valid syntax, not any usage of this functionality.
ENGINE, AUTO_INCREMENT, AVG_ROW_LENGTH, CHECKSUM, COLLATE, COMMENT, CONNECTION, DELAY_KEY_WRITE, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, PACK_KEYS

INSERT_METHOD, CHARACTER SET is not support.

I suspect a number of these could be eliminated, definitely CONNECTION as this is related to the FEDERATED storage engine.

VIEWS are not supported in Drizzle.

I will need to invest more time to confirm INDEX and CONSTRAINT syntax.

A beginners look at Drizzle – Getting around with SHOW

Assuming you have successfully compiled Drizzle, and you are ready to start for the first time, here are some beginner differences with those familiar with the current MySQL 5.1 GA version. Note: drizzle is actually an original fork of the 6.0.x codebase however the code looks very little like mysql anymore.

Getting started differences

The first default MySQL installation step scripts/install_mysql_db is gone, and there is no replacement. The ‘mysql’ schema no longer exists. Talking about schemas, ‘test’ is also gone by default.

While a bin/drizzled_safe exists to start drizzle, this presently doesn’t operate as expected. You should start drizzle with sbin/drizzled &

They still have an empty password for ‘root’. Would be nice if it was at least a default like an Oracle installation, and a password became a mandatory requirement. Speaking of passwords, trying ‘drizzle -uroot -pxxxx’ will result in an unexpected error.

$ bin/drizzle -uroot -pxxx

ERROR:
Non-integer value supplied for port.  If you are trying to enter a password please use --password instead.

Taking a look around at some common mysql commands you may be familiar with.

Information Schema

drizzle> show schemas;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
drizzle> use information_schema;
drizzle> show tables;
+---------------------------------------+
| Tables_in_information_schema          |
+---------------------------------------+
| CHARACTER_SETS                        |
| COLLATIONS                            |
| COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY |
| COLUMNS                               |
| GLOBAL_STATUS                         |
| GLOBAL_VARIABLES                      |
| KEY_COLUMN_USAGE                      |
| PLUGINS                               |
| PROCESSLIST                           |
| REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS               |
| SCHEMATA                              |
| SESSION_STATUS                        |
| SESSION_VARIABLES                     |
| STATISTICS                            |
| TABLES                                |
| TABLE_CONSTRAINTS                     |
| INNODB_CMP                            |
| INNODB_CMP_RESET                      |
| INNODB_CMPMEM                         |
| INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET                   |
| INNODB_LOCK_WAITS                     |
| INNODB_LOCKS                          |
| INNODB_TRX                            |
+---------------------------------------+
23 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Gone are COLUMN_PRIVILEGES ENGINES EVENTS FILES KEY_COLUMN_USAGE PARTITIONS PROFILING ROUTINES SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES TABLE_PRIVILEGES TRIGGERS USER_PRIVILEGES VIEWS. With MySQL privileges and a number of 5.x features removed, that’s expected. I was surprised to see ENGINES gone. More on that later.

SIDE NOTE: Disappointed to see (0.00 sec) still around. I would have expected the client interface could have had an overhaul for timing output, and report say 0.00 milliseconds.

Variables

drizzle> show variables
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name                          | Value                                       |
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| archive_aio                            | OFF                                         |
..
| innodb_change_buffering                | inserts                                     |
| innodb_file_format                     | Antelope                                    |
| innodb_file_format_check               | Antelope                                    |
| innodb_replication_delay               | 0                                           |
| innodb_stats_on_metadata               | ON                                          |
| innodb_stats_sample_pages              | 8                                           |
| innodb_strict_mode                     | OFF                                         |
| innodb_use_sys_malloc                  | ON                                          |
| innodb_version                         | 1.0.3                                       |
...
| logging_query_enable                   | OFF                                         |
| logging_query_filename                 |                                             |
| logging_query_threshold_big_examined   | 0                                           |
| logging_query_threshold_big_resultset  | 0                                           |
| logging_query_threshold_slow           | 0                                           |
| logging_syslog_enable                  | OFF                                         |
| logging_syslog_facility                | local0                                      |
| logging_syslog_ident                   | drizzled                                    |
| logging_syslog_priority                | info                                        |
| logging_syslog_threshold_big_examined  | 0                                           |
| logging_syslog_threshold_big_resultset | 0                                           |
| logging_syslog_threshold_slow          | 0                                           |
...
| multi_thread_max_threads               | 2048                                        |
| myisam_block_size                      | 1024                                        |
| optimizer_switch                       |                                             |
| optimizer_use_mrr                      | force                                       |
| pool_of_threads_size                   | 8                                           |
| replicator_directory                   |                                             |
| replicator_enabled                     | OFF                                         |

161 rows in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL 5.1 has some 265 variables values, so huge changes here. The big sections gone are around CHARACTER SETS, SSL, REPLICATION, QUERY_CACHE, LOG, FULL TEXT. The above list shows new variables, some of these are Innodb plugin related.

Status

drizzle> show status
...
112 rows in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL 5.1 has some 290 status and Drizzle currently 112. Same suspects, REPLICATION, SSL, QUERY_CACHE, a lot of COM_ commands, all INNODB related status and THREADS_CREATED and THREADS_RUNNING. Nothing new from Drizzle.

Engines

drizzle> show engines;
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your Drizzle server version for the right syntax to use near 'engines' at line 1
drizzle> show plugins;
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your Drizzle server version for the right syntax to use near 'plugins' at line 1

An initial surprise here, but knowing that all work is converting to plugins, you found this all in INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PLUGINS

drizzle> select * from plugins;
+---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+
| PLUGIN_NAME         | PLUGIN_VERSION | PLUGIN_STATUS | PLUGIN_TYPE        | PLUGIN_LIBRARY | PLUGIN_AUTHOR                        | PLUGIN_DESCRIPTION                                                       | PLUGIN_LICENSE |
+---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+
| binlog              | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | MySQL AB                             | This is a pseudo storage engine to represent the binlog in a transaction | GPL            |
| compress            | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | UDF                | NULL           | Stewart Smith                        | UDF for compress()                                                       | GPL            |
| crc32               | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | UDF                | NULL           | Stewart Smith                        | UDF for computing CRC32                                                  | GPL            |
| logging_query       | 0.2            | ACTIVE        | LOGGER             | NULL           | Mark Atwood  mark @fallenpegasus.com  | Log queries to a CSV file                                                | GPL            |
| logging_syslog      | 0.2            | ACTIVE        | LOGGER             | NULL           | Mark Atwood  mark @fallenpegasus.com  | Log to syslog                                                            | GPL            |
| multi_thread        | 0.1            | ACTIVE        | SCHEDULING         | NULL           | Brian Aker                           | One Thread Per Session Scheduler                                         | GPL            |
| pool_of_threads     | 0.1            | ACTIVE        | SCHEDULING         | NULL           | Brian Aker                           | Pool of Threads Scheduler                                                | GPL            |
| replicator          | 0.1            | ACTIVE        | REPLICATOR         | NULL           | Brian Aker                           | Basic replication module                                                 | GPL            |
| signal_handler      | 0.1            | ACTIVE        | DAEMON             | NULL           | Brian Aker                           | Default Signal Handler                                                   | GPL            |
| single_thread       | 0.1            | ACTIVE        | SCHEDULING         | NULL           | Brian Aker                           | Single Thread Scheduler                                                  | GPL            |
| uncompressed_length | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | UDF                | NULL           | Stewart Smith                        | UDF for compress()                                                       | GPL            |
| uncompress          | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | UDF                | NULL           | Stewart Smith                        | UDF for compress()                                                       | GPL            |
| ARCHIVE             | 3.5            | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | Brian Aker, MySQL AB                 | Archive storage engine                                                   | GPL            |
| CSV                 | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | Brian Aker, MySQL AB                 | CSV storage engine                                                       | GPL            |
| MEMORY              | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | MySQL AB                             | Hash based, stored in memory, useful for temporary tables                | GPL            |
| InnoDB              | 1.0.1          | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | Supports transactions, row-level locking, and foreign keys               | GPL            |
| INNODB_TRX          | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | InnoDB transactions                                                      | GPL            |
| INNODB_LOCKS        | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | InnoDB conflicting locks                                                 | GPL            |
| INNODB_LOCK_WAITS   | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | InnoDB which lock is blocking which                                      | GPL            |
| INNODB_CMP          | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | Statistics for the InnoDB compression                                    | GPL            |
| INNODB_CMP_RESET    | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | Statistics for the InnoDB compression; reset cumulated counts            | GPL            |
| INNODB_CMPMEM       | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | Statistics for the InnoDB compressed buffer pool                         | GPL            |
| INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET | 1.0.2          | ACTIVE        | INFORMATION SCHEMA | NULL           | Innobase Oy                          | Statistics for the InnoDB compressed buffer pool; reset cumulated counts | GPL            |
| MyISAM              | 1.0            | ACTIVE        | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL           | MySQL AB                             | Default engine as of MySQL 3.23 with great performance                   | GPL            |
+---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+
24 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This is where we start to see some significant differences. Storage engines are now all plugins. We see some entire new features for SCHEDULING, LOGGING and REPLICATOR.

drizzle> select plugin_type,count(*) from information_schema.plugins group by plugin_type order by 2 desc;
+--------------------+----------+
| plugin_type        | count(*) |
+--------------------+----------+
| INFORMATION SCHEMA |        7 |
| STORAGE ENGINE     |        6 |
| UDF                |        4 |
| SCHEDULING         |        3 |
| LOGGER             |        2 |
| REPLICATOR         |        1 |
| DAEMON             |        1 |
+--------------------+----------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

SHOW Commands

Drizzle supports the following SHOW Commands.

SHOW COLUMNS FROM information_schema.tables;
SHOW CREATE DATABASE information_schema;
SHOW DATABASES;
SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS;
SHOW ERRORS;
SHOW INDEX FROM information_schema.tables;
SHOW OPEN TABLES;
SHOW PROCESSLIST;
SHOW STATUS;
SHOW TABLE STATUS;
SHOW TABLES;
SHOW VARIABLES;
SHOW WARNINGS;
SHOW CREATE SCHEMA;
SHOW SCHEMAS;

The following are no longer valid.

AUTHORS, CHARACTER SET, COLLATION, CONTRIBUTORS, EVENT event_name, FUNCTION func_name, PROCEDURE proc_name, TRIGGER trigger_name, VIEW view_name, ENGINES, EVENTS, FUNCTION CODE func_name, FUNCTION STATUS, GRANTS FOR , INNODB STATUS, PLUGINS, PROCEDURE CODE proc_name, PROCEDURE STATUS, PRIVILEGES, PROFILE, PROFILES, SCHEDULER STATUS, TRIGGERS, BINARY LOGS, MASTER LOGS, BINLOG EVENTS, MASTER STATUS, SLAVE HOSTS, SLAVE STATUS,

A Drizzle update – Running version 2009.03.970-development

I’ve not looked at compiling and running Drizzle on my server for the past four weeks. Well overdue time for a check and see how it’s going. I saw in today’s planet.mysql.com by Eric Day a new dependency is needed. libdrizzle 0.2.0 now in Drizzle is now required, so I started there.

cd ~/bzr
bzr branch lp:libdrizzle
cd libdrizzle
./config/autorun.sh
./configure
make
sudo make install

No problems there, also documented at the Drizzle Wiki. Great to see the docs up to date. I see my old work on starting the compiling page still relevant. Tested on CentOS 5 and Mac OS/X 10.5

Compiling drizzle was not much more difficult.

cd ~/bzr/drizzle
bzr update
make distclean
./config/autorun.sh
./configure --prefix=/home/drizzle/deploy
make
make install

The problems happened when I started drizzle. Initially I was using bin/drizzled_safe, but it was recommended via IRC#drizzle I stick with sbin/drizzled

sbin/drizzled &
error while loading shared libraries: libprotobuf.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

An investigation of Google Proto Buffers.

$ protoc --version
libprotoc 2.0.2

I see that protobuf 2.0.3 is now available, but this was not the problem.

I got around the problem by specifying the current library path:

$ LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib sbin/drizzled &

I corrected this problem by adding /usr/local/lib to the default ld path, both the libdrizzle and libprotobuf libs are located there.

$ echo "/usr/local/lib" > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/drizzle.conf
$ ldconfig
$ ls -l /usr/local/lib
total 37240
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  1194602 Mar 31 17:42 libdrizzle.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root      940 Mar 31 17:42 libdrizzle.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       19 Mar 31 17:42 libdrizzle.so -> libdrizzle.so.0.0.2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       19 Mar 31 17:42 libdrizzle.so.0 -> libdrizzle.so.0.0.2
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1117979 Mar 31 17:42 libdrizzle.so.0.0.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12199302 Nov 30 23:32 libprotobuf.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root      836 Nov 30 23:32 libprotobuf.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       20 Nov 30 23:32 libprotobuf.so -> libprotobuf.so.2.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       20 Aug 27  2008 libprotobuf.so.0 -> libprotobuf.so.0.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  5027949 Aug 27  2008 libprotobuf.so.0.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       20 Nov 30 23:32 libprotobuf.so.2 -> libprotobuf.so.2.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  5586965 Nov 30 23:32 libprotobuf.so.2.0.0
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  9264068 Nov 30 23:32 libprotoc.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root      852 Nov 30 23:32 libprotoc.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       18 Nov 30 23:32 libprotoc.so -> libprotoc.so.0.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root       18 Nov 30 23:32 libprotoc.so.0 -> libprotoc.so.0.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  3645396 Nov 30 23:32 libprotoc.so.0.0.0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root     4096 Mar 31 17:42 pkgconfig

Starting

$ sbin/drizzled &
InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins.
090331 18:38:08  InnoDB: highest supported file format is Barracuda.
InnoDB: The log sequence number in ibdata files does not match
InnoDB: the log sequence number in the ib_logfiles!
090331 18:38:08  InnoDB: Database was not shut down normally!
InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.
InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...
InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pages from the doublewrite
InnoDB: buffer...
090331 18:38:08 InnoDB Plugin 1.0.3 started; log sequence number 46419
sbin/drizzled: ready for connections.
Version: '2009.03.970-development'  socket: ''  port: 4427  Source distribution

Verifying

$ bin/drizzle -uroot
Welcome to the Drizzle client..  Commands end with ; or g.
Your Drizzle connection id is 1
Server version: 2009.03.970-development Source distribution
Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the buffer.
drizzle> select version();
+-------------------------+
| version()               |
+-------------------------+
| 2009.03.970-development |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
drizzle> exit

Sweet! Now to try some testing & benchmarking before the barrage of conferences next month, 2009 MySQL Camp, Percona Performance Conference and MySQL Conference & Expo.

I’m going to check out The Juice Database Benchmark next as a more realistic benchmark to DBT2 and sysbench.

Extending vmplot

Taking the work already done with vmplot.sh, a useful tool for MySQL performance tuning by Yves and Matt at BigDBAHead, and in true Open Source fashion I’ve enhanced and modified for my own purposes.

These changes include:

  • Error checking for ‘gnuplot’ command on the system
  • Eliminate the first row of sample data, as this is often not a complete sample for the vmstat duration.
  • Created a HTML output file for easy browser viewing
  • Changed Memory scale values from Kilobytes to Megabytes
  • Resizing png’s for optimal 1024×768 display output (2 per row)

Download vmplot

And I get:

So more specifics of what I did.

Install gnuplot.

$ yum install gnuplot

Create vmstat sample file.

vmstat 1 100 > vmstat.out

Generate output graphs (need to work out those warnings)

 ./vmplot -i vmstat.out -o tmp
Warning: empty y range [0:0], adjusting to [-1:1]
Warning: empty y range [0:0], adjusting to [0:1]

And then I can view via a browser, in this case http://localhost/tmp/vmplot.htm

Some worthwhile references include Gnuplot Reference Manual, Gnuplot Examples and Gnuplot in Action

Your Code, Your Community, Your Cloud… Project Kenai

Following the opening keynote announcement about Kenai I ventured into a talk on Project Kenai.

With today’s economy, the drive is towards efficiency is certainly a key consideration, it was quoted that dedicated hosting servers only run at 30% efficiency.

An overview again of Cloud Computing

  • Economics – Pay as you go,
  • Developer Centric – rapid self provisioning, api-driven, faster deployment
  • Flexibility – standard services, elastic, on demand, multi-tenant

Types of Clouds

  • Public – pay as you go, multi-tenant application and services
  • Private – Cloud computing model run within a company’s own data center
  • Mixed – Mixed user of public and private clouds according to applications

SmugMug was referenced as a Mixed Cloud example.

Cloud Layers

  • Infrastructure as a Services – Basic storage and computer capabilities offer as a service (eg. AWS)
  • Platform as a Service – Developer platform with build-in services. e.g. Google App Engine
  • Software as Service – applications offered on demand over the network e.g salesforce.com

Some issues raised about this layers included.

  • IaaS issues include Service Level, Privacy, Security, Cost of Exit
  • PaaS interesting point, one that is the bane of MySQL performance tuning, that is instrumentation
  • SaaS nothing you need to download, you take the pieces you need, interact with the cloud. More services simply like doing your Tax online.

Sun offers Project Kenai as well as Zembly.

Project Kenai

  • A platform and ecosystem for developers.
  • Freely host open source projects and code.
  • Connect, community, collaborate and Code with peers
  • Eventually easily deploy application/services to “clouds”

Kenai Features

  • Code Repository with SVN, Mercurial, or an external repository
  • Issue tracking with bugzilla, jira
  • collaboration tools such as wiki, forums, mailing lists
  • document hosting
  • your profile
  • administrative role

Within Kenai you can open up to 5 open source projects and various metrics of the respositories, issue trackers, wiki etc.

The benefits were given as the features are integrated into your project, not distributed across different sites. Agile development within the project sees a release every 2 weeks. Integration with NetBeans and Eclipse is underway.

Kenai is targeted as being the core of the next generation of Sun’s collaboration tools. However when I asked for more details about uptake in Sun, it’s only a request, not a requirement for internal teams.

The API’s for the Sun Cloud are at http://kenai.com/projects/suncloudapis.

Event: CommunityOne East in New York, NY.
Presenter: Tori Wieldt, Sun Microsystems
Article Author: Ronald Bradford

Everybody is talking About Clouds

From the opening keynote at CommunityOne East we begin with Everybody is talking About Clouds.

It’s difficult to get a good definition, the opening cloud definition today was Software/Platform/Storage/Database/Infrastructure as a service. Grid Computing, Visualization, Utility Computing, Application Hosting. Basically all the buzz words we currently know.

Cloud computing has the ideals of truly bringing a freedom of choice. For inside or outside of an enterprise, the lower the barrier, time and cost into freedom of choice give opportunities including:

  • Self-service provisioning
  • Scale up, Scale down.
  • Pay for only what you use.

Sun’s Vision has existed since 1984 with “The NETWORK is the Computer”.

Today, Sun’s View includes Many Clouds, Public and Private, Tuned up for different application needs, geographical, political, with a goal of being Open and Compatible.

How do we think into the future for developing and deploying into the cloud? The answer given today was, The Sun Open Cloud Platform which includes the set of core technologies, API’s and protocols that Sun hopes to see uptake among many different providers.

The Sun Cloud Platform

  • Products and Technologies – VirtualBox, Sun xVM, Q-Laser, MySQL
  • Expertise and Services
  • Partners – Zmanda, Rightscale, Kickapps
  • Open Communities – Glashfish, Java, Open Office, Zfs, Netbeans, Eucalyptus

The Sun Cloud includes:

  • Compute Service
  • Storage Service
  • Virtual Data Center
  • Open API – Public, RESTful, Java, Python, Ruby

The public API has been released today and is available under Kenai. It includes two key points:

  • Everything is a resource http GET, POST, PUT etc
  • A single starting point, other URI’s are discoverable.

What was initially showed was CLI interface exmaples, great to see this still is common, a demonstration using drag and drop via a web interface was also given, showing a load balanced, multi-teired, multi server environment. This was started and tested during the presentation.

Then Using Cyberduck (a WebDAV client on Mac OS/X) and being able to access the storage component at storage.network.com directly, then from Open Office you now get options to Get/Save to Cloud ( using TwoGuys.com, Virtual Data Center example document).

Seamless integration between the tools, and the service. That was impressive.

More information at sun.com/cloud. You can get more details also at the Sun Microsystems Unveils Open Cloud PlatformOfficial Press Release.

Event: CommunityOne East in New York, NY.
Article Author: Ronald Bradford

CommunityOne East – An open developer conference

With an opening video from thru-you.com – an individual taking random you-tube video and producing video mashup’s, the CommunityOne East conference in New York, NY beings.

The opening introduction was by Chief Sustainability Officer Dave Douglas. Interesting job title.

His initial discussion was around what is the relationship between technology and society. A plug for his upcoming book “Citizen Engineer” – The responsibilities of a 21st Century Engineer. He quotes “Crisis loves an Innovation” by Jonathan Schwartz, and extends with “Crisis loves a Community”.

He asks us to consider the wider community ecosystem such as schools, towns, governments, NGO’s etc with our usage and knowledge of technology.

Event: CommunityOne East in New York, NY.
Author: Ronald Bradford

Hurting the little guy?

Today I come back from the dentist, if that wasn’t bad enough news, I get an email from Google AdWords titled Your Google AdWords Approval Status.

In the email, all my AdWords campaigns are now disapproved, because of:

SUGGESTIONS:
-> Ad Content: Please remove the following trademark from your ad:
mysql.

Yeah right. I can’t put the word ‘MySQL’ in my ads. How are people to now find me? It would appear that many ads have been pulled not just mine. Is this a proactive measure by Google? is this a complaint from the MySQL trademark holder Sun Microsystems?

I’d like any comment, feedback or suggestions on how one can proceed here.

It reminds me of the days CentOS advertised itself as an “Open source provider of a popular North American Operating System”, or something of that nature.

Understanding the various MySQL Products & Variants

The MySQL marketplace today is far more complex then simply choosing between a particular version of MySQL that Sun/MySQL produces.
The MySQL server product in general is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL) v2, however you should carefully review the MySQL Legal Policies as a number of exceptions and different license agreements operate for companion tools such as MySQL Cluster, MySQL client libraries and documentation for example.

Looking into the MySQL ecosystem for products, I’ve produced the following categories:

  • Sun/MySQL Official Products
    • MySQL Versions
  • MySQL Variants
    • Community
    • Enterprise
  • MySQL Plugins
  • MySQL Patches
  • MySQL Alternatives

Why does such a diversification occur?  I attribute this to three primary causes:

  • The GPL license by nature allows for an organization to take the product, modify it and use it for their specific needs. They can also provide these patches under GPL for others to use and incorporate. While this has occurred for example  Google , FaceBook, eBay , Proven Scaling and Percona to name a few, Sun/MySQL has elected not to undertake any proactive process of incorporating these in any timely fashion.
  • The policy of Sun/MySQL to allow for contributions was so strict, and combined with a properietory Version Control System BitKeeper you had to purchase, there was little incentive for community contributions in relation to so many other open source projects
  • The Sun/MySQL management and decision makers didn’t listen to the community and paying customers, and over the past 3-5 years the product life cycle, features, release schedule and quality can be questioned.

Sun/MySQL Official Products

Sun/MySQL holds the license to the MySQL server products. They release official binaries and the source code (due to GPL).  Even within MySQL, there are several products that differ subtly and to the untrained eye it can be confusing to understand and determine what is best. Your can download from www.mysql.com the following versions:

  • MySQL Server 5.1  GA
  • MySQL Community Server 5.0 GA
  • MySQL Enterprise Server 5.0 GA
  • MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3

  • MySQL Server 4.1 (EOL)
  • MYSQL Server 6.0 (Alpha)

MySQL Versions

It is important that you understand the MySQL Versions, especially in evaluating any of the following referenced variants, patches etc.
The common path for MySQL Server versions is with a generally linear numbering systems including historical versions 3.23, 4.0 and 4.1.  These versions have now reached End Of Life (EOL) for support, however emergency security patches are applied where necessary.
Continuing from 4.1, you have the 5.0, 5.1 versions which are both Generally Available (GA), and then version 6.0 which is currently Alpha.

Further complexity happens when within the Sun/MySQL Official products, several forks/branches have occurred.  These include:

  • The MySQL 5.0 Community & Enterprise split occurred at MySQL Version 5.0.27
  • At this time, the Community version (free to download) continued with the intention of allowing for community contributions. Only one patch was ever accepted, and SHOW PROFILES was introduced in MySQL 5.0.37.  To date, 11 versions have been released to the current 5.0.77 version.
  • MySQL Enterprise (available under subscription) is itself comprised of three subtypes, these are Rapid Update Service Packs(monthly), Quarterly Service Packs (quarterly) and Hot-fix releases.  To date 37 versions have been released to the current 5.0.78 version.
  • MySQL Cluster, was part of the MySQL Server product until this was branched/forked at  MySQL Version 5.1.23. This enabled MySQL Cluster to be labeled as Production Ready for Cluster clients, and not be held back by continued delays in the 5.1 server release.   Starting with a new versioning scheme with 6.1, the MySQL Cluster NDB produces new versions far exceeding the volume of the server, with to date 23 versions in 6.1 , 18 in version 6.2 and 24 in version 6.3.      I am not advocating that features and quality are better or worse, simply that activity and interaction with community and users is far greater.
  • MySQL 5.1 Maria is a special branch starting at MySQL Version 5.1.24 that includes the Maria Storage Engine. This is the next generation of the MyISAM Storage Engine, both architected by the creator of MySQL, Monty Widenius.  It is undercertain this will continue as a product released officially by Sun/MySQL.

In Review

With just reading this introduction you can understand the confusion that exists when new customers/clients are beginning to evaluate the different MySQL Versions.

In my next post, I’ll talk more about:

  • MySQL Variants, those I consider variants use the MySQL Interface, protocol and support the standard connectors.  These include community versions (e.g. Solid, Infobright, Sphinx) and commercial versions (e.g. KickFire, InfoBright, Nitro).  
  • MySQL patches are improvements that have been released to the community and are now becoming part of common third party MySQL packages, such as Percona, Proven Scaling and Out Delta
  • MySQL Plugins are a feature of MySQL 5.1, and allow for pluggable storage engines into MySQL.  While several companies have had to produce custom binaries due to the API limitions (especially with the optimizer), a number of engines support the API including Innodb, PBXT and filesystem engine.
  • MySQL Alternatives include any MySQL related products that have now deviated from being supported under the MySQL protocol.  Most notably here is Drizzle.

More Information

Ronald Bradford is Principal at 42SQL. We provide consulting and advisory services for the MySQL ecosystem with a focus on MySQL database performance, architecture and scalability. 42SQL also provides education in MySQL including the “MySQL Essentials” training course. You can find more information regarding this offering and an upcoming schedule at 42SQL Education.

Infobright Community Edition(ICE) – It's Free

The March NY MySQL Meetup featured a presentation from Infobright, a data warehousing solution built on the MySQL Product.

With a pitch of “Simplicity, Scalability and low TCO” I became more impressed with the capability to delivery on these as the presentation proceeded. Here are some highlights.

  • The company and product has been around for a few years. Infobright started as a compression engine to sit beside Teradata, providing a significant cost saving to clients, and allowing a two way data transfer between Teradata.
  • In September 2008, a open source community edition was released, called ICE. (Which I didn’t know)
  • The technology is based on a Rough Set theory, a mathematical approach
  • Using a column oriented approach, compression generally starts at 10:1, different applications can get 30:1 or better
  • There is basically no tuning, there are no indexes. Knowledge is gleaned at data loading and each data pack node holds key information per column, such as range of values (min,max).
  • Some interesting results are, there is a constant load time, it doesn’t degrade over time as the size of your data increases. Also, Query performance scales with data volume.
  • Depending on queries, the knowledge grid can retrieve results without having to uncompress the data, i.e. introspection of the meta data is all that is needed
  • Infobright is not a pluggable storage engine, rather a custom binary of MySQL. This is due to the restrictions of the API and the lack of optimizer push down conditions for example.

The product is not without some limitations, but you have to realize the product is for a data warehousing implementation, not an OLTP web app. It’s not great with SELECT *, and large text strings for example.

Functionality continues to be added, with a recent release adding many more MySQL Functions, but again, Infobright does not claim to be a solution to everybody, there is not UDF support or SP support at this time, however I’d warrant this is really not needed.

While the presentation went into some detail regarding the knowledge grid, data packs, data pack nodes, and pack to pack integration from a slide perspective, the presentation lacked the technical here is how you use the loader to get data out of MySQL and into Infobright. Here is the throughput, etc. As a marketing presentation it had the right content, but I’d like to now see the companion technical presentation.

Having previously been part of the MySQL Consulting team, and having worked also in the Storage Engine API with the Nitro Storage engine I have a distinct advantage of knowing the complexities of integration with MySQL. We can only hope this continues to improve with future releases of MySQL enabling Infobright and other products to integrate better and keep up to date with the MySQL Release cycle.

Eliminating unnecessary internal temporary tables

I can’t stress enough that people look at SQL statements that are being executed against your production MySQL database, and you optimize queries when you can.

Often it’s the improvement to the large number of similar queries executed that can optimize resources. In this example, we take a very simple query, and by removing an unnecessary order by, we eliminate MySQL internally creating a temporary (in memory) table.

So what’s the big deal.

  • The query is simpler to read and understand
  • Memory required for the connection is not assigned
  • A number of internal steps are no longer required (4 of 21 logging messages, not an ideal measurement, but an indication). In this case, it was easily a 10% performance improvement for each query.

This query is executed 10-100 times per second, so the improvement in performance is significant.

mysql> explain select max(mdate) as mdate from tbl  where original_account = 'xxx@msn.com' and id = '15847' order by mdate desc;
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
| id | select_type | table                | type | possible_keys        | key              | key_len | ref         | rows | Extra                        |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | tbl                  | ref  | ids,original_account | original_account | 388     | const,const |  146 | Using where; Using temporary |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> explain select max(mdate) as mdate from tbl  where original_account = 'xxx@msn.com' and id = '15847';
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table                | type | possible_keys        | key              | key_len | ref         | rows | Extra       |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | tbl                  | ref  | ids,original_account | original_account | 388     | const,const |  146 | Using where |
+----+-------------+----------------------+------+----------------------+------------------+---------+-------------+------+-------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> show profile cpu,memory,source for query 1;
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| Status                         | Duration | CPU_user | CPU_system | Source_function           | Source_file   | Source_line |
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| (initialization)               | 0.00001  | 0        | 0          | send_result_to_client     | sql_cache.cc  |        1143 |
| checking query cache for query | 0.000079 | 0        | 0          | open_tables               | sql_base.cc   |        2652 |
| Opening tables                 | 0.000024 | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         153 |
| System lock                    | 0.000015 | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         163 |
| Table lock                     | 0.000041 | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2282 |
| init                           | 0.000046 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         765 |
| optimizing                     | 0.000027 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         924 |
| statistics                     | 0.000173 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         934 |
| preparing                      | 0.000028 | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |        1383 |
| Creating tmp table             | 0.000053 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1603 |
| executing                      | 0.000011 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1743 |
| Copying to tmp table           | 0.002226 | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        2123 |
| Sending data                   | 0.000148 | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2327 |
| end                            | 0.000013 | 0        | 0          | free_tmp_table            | sql_select.cc |       10115 |
| removing tmp table             | 0.000064 | 0        | 0          | free_tmp_table            | sql_select.cc |       10143 |
| end                            | 0.000014 | 0        | 0          | mysql_execute_command     | sql_parse.cc  |        5154 |
| query end                      | 0.000012 | 0        | 0          | query_cache_end_of_result | sql_cache.cc  |         735 |
| storing result in query cache  | 0.000047 | 0        | 0          | mysql_parse               | sql_parse.cc  |        6155 |
| freeing items                  | 0.000021 | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2146 |
| closing tables                 | 0.000014 | 0        | 0          | log_slow_statement        | sql_parse.cc  |        2204 |
| logging slow query             | 0.000011 | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2169 |
+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
21 rows in set (0.00 sec)


mysql> show profile cpu,memory,source for query 2;
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| Status                         | Duration  | CPU_user | CPU_system | Source_function           | Source_file   | Source_line |
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
| (initialization)               | 0.000021  | 0        | 0          | send_result_to_client     | sql_cache.cc  |        1143 |
| checking query cache for query | 0.000090  | 0        | 0          | open_tables               | sql_base.cc   |        2652 |
| Opening tables                 | 0.000022  | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         153 |
| System lock                    | 0.000014  | 0        | 0          | mysql_lock_tables         | lock.cc       |         163 |
| Table lock                     | 0.000044  | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2282 |
| init                           | 0.000049  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         765 |
| optimizing                     | 0.000028  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         924 |
| statistics                     | 0.000179  | 0        | 0          | optimize                  | sql_select.cc |         934 |
| preparing                      | 0.000029  | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        1603 |
| executing                      | 0.000016  | 0        | 0          | exec                      | sql_select.cc |        2123 |
| Sending data                   | 0.00229   | 0        | 0          | mysql_select              | sql_select.cc |        2327 |
| end                            | 0.000039  | 0        | 0          | mysql_execute_command     | sql_parse.cc  |        5154 |
| query end                      | 0.000012  | 0        | 0          | query_cache_end_of_result | sql_cache.cc  |         735 |
| storing result in query cache  | 0.000011  | 0        | 0          | mysql_parse               | sql_parse.cc  |        6155 |
| freeing items                  | 0.00002   | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2146 |
| closing tables                 | 0.000014  | 0        | 0          | log_slow_statement        | sql_parse.cc  |        2204 |
| logging slow query             | 0.00001   | 0        | 0          | dispatch_command          | sql_parse.cc  |        2169 |
+--------------------------------+-----------+----------+------------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
17 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Announcing "MySQL Essentials" Training

Are you having problems getting up to speed on MySQL? Are you asking yourself “Is there a hands-on training course we can send a developer/system admin to learn MySQL?”. In response, at 42SQL we have put together two new training courses, MySQL Essentials and MySQL Operations.

MySQL Essentials Training Details

With MySQL Essentials we tackle the core essentials that a developer/system admin/junior DBA would require in order to support an initial development environment that uses MySQL. Essentials training teaches the following skills:

  • Which version of MySQL to use (including the various different variants and patches available)
  • Backup, retention, and recovery strategies
  • Configuration and Monitoring of MySQL
  • Optimal schema and data objects configuration management
  • more information here

We are now accepting registrations for MySQL Essentials training being held on April 1st – 2nd in New York, and April 6th – 7 th in Washington DC.

About the presenter

Ronald Bradford is a two-decade veteran with extensive database experience in MySQL, Oracle and Ingres. His expertise covers data architecture, software development, migration, performance analysis and production system implementations. With ten years experience in MySQL, his involvement in the MySQL ecosystem has included working as Senior Consultant with MySQL Inc, speaker at four MySQL Conferences, and creator of the “MySQL for Oracle DBA’s” one-day workshop. Ronald holds MySQL Certifications including DBA 5.0, Developer 5.0 and MySQL Cluster 5.1.

The art of looking at the actual SQL statements

It’s a shame that MySQL does not provide better granularity when you want to look at all SQL statements being executed in a MySQL server. I canvas that you can with the general log, but the inherit starting/stopping problems in 5.0, improved in 5.1, but I would still like to see the option on a per connection basis, or even a time period. MySQL Proxy can provide a solution here but also with some caveats.

You should however in a NON production environment, take the time to enable the general log and look the SQL Statements. Prior to looking at the SQL, monitoring of the GLOBAL STATUS variables combined with Statpack revealed the following in a 1 minute interval.

====================================================================================================
                                         Statement Activity
====================================================================================================

                     SELECT:           16,042                   267.37                8,177,050 (46.03%)
                     INSERT:            5,838                    97.30                1,826,616 (10.28%)
                     UPDATE:            1,109                    18.48                  738,546 (4.16%)
                     DELETE:            2,018                    33.63                1,374,983 (7.74%)
                    REPLACE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
          INSERT ... SELECT:                0                     0.00                       27 (0.00%)
         REPLACE ... SELECT:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
               Multi UPDATE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
               Multi DELETE:                0                     0.00                        0 (0.00%)
                     COMMIT:            5,708                    95.13                2,161,232 (12.17%)
                   ROLLBACK:            5,746                    95.77                3,485,828 (19.62%)

If you notice the last 2 lines, some 19% of statements executed on the server are ROLLBACK. Further analysis of the schema shows mainly Innodb tables (good as COMMIT and ROLLBACK are supported), but also some MyISAM tables.

The following is a snippet from the general log.

                     23 Query       select 1
                     23 Query       INSERT INTO JMS_TRANSACTIONS (TXID) values(17719)
                     23 Query       UPDATE JMS_MESSAGES SET TXID=17719, TXOP='D' WHERE MESSAGEID=16248 AND DESTINATION='QUEUE.receivemail'
                     23 Query       commit
                     23 Query       rollback
                     23 Query       select 1
                     23 Query       DELETE FROM JMS_MESSAGES WHERE TXID=17719 AND TXOP='D'
                     23 Query       DELETE FROM JMS_TRANSACTIONS WHERE TXID = 17719
                     23 Query       commit
                     23 Query       rollback

This turns out to be most interesting. These tables are use by Java Messaging Service but I observed three points.

  • the ‘select 1′ is effectively a ping test to confirm the connection is still valid. MySQL provides a more lightweight COM_PING. It would be good to know if this environment using JBoss could support that.
  • There is a ‘ROLLBACK’ after every command, totally redundant, and most likely part of higher level framework.
  • The ‘COMMIT’ is used in conjunction with a number of statements, however when I mentioned earlier some tables were MyISAM, these were the JMS tables, so in this situation the commit is useless as this is not a transactional storage engine.

A number of decisions are needed to correct this problem, however the point of raising this is, always look at the your SQL.

Watching a slave catchup

This neat one line command can be of interest when you are rebuilding a MySQL slave and replication is currently catching up.

$ watch --interval=1 --differences 'mysql -uuser -ppassword -e "SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G"'

You will see the standard SHOW SLAVE STATUS output, but the watch command presents an updated view every second, and highlights differences. This can be useful in a background window to keep an eye on those ‘Seconds Behind Master’.

*************************** 1. row ***************************
             Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                Master_Host: 10.10.10.10
                Master_User: slave
                Master_Port: 3306
              Connect_Retry: 60
            Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000626
        Read_Master_Log_Pos: 88159239
             Relay_Log_File: slave-relay.000005
              Relay_Log_Pos: 426677632
      Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000621
           Slave_IO_Running: Yes
          Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
            Replicate_Do_DB:
        Replicate_Ignore_DB:
         Replicate_Do_Table:
     Replicate_Ignore_Table:
    Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
                 Last_Errno: 0
                 Last_Error:
               Skip_Counter: 0
        Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 426677495
            Relay_Log_Space: 2714497549
            Until_Condition: None
             Until_Log_File:
              Until_Log_Pos: 0
         Master_SSL_Allowed: No
         Master_SSL_CA_File:
         Master_SSL_CA_Path:
            Master_SSL_Cert:
          Master_SSL_Cipher:
             Master_SSL_Key:
      Seconds_Behind_Master: 24131

Some Drupal observations

I had the opportunity to review a client’s production Drupal installation recently. This is a new site and traffic is just starting to pick up. Drupal is a popular LAMP stack open source CMS system using the MySQL Database.

Unfortunately I don’t always have the chance to focus on one product when consulting, sometimes the time can be minutes to a few hours. Some observations from looking at Drupal.

Disk footprint

Presently, volume and content is of a low volume, but expecting to ramp up. I do however find 90% of disk volume in one table called ‘watchdog';


+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| table_schema | total_mb     | data_mb      | index_mb    | tables |
+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| xxxxx        | 812.95555878 | 745.34520721 | 67.61035156 |    191 |
+--------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+--------+

+-------------------------------------------+--------+------------+------------+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
| table_name                                | engine | row_format | table_rows | avg_row_length | total_mb     | data_mb      | index_mb    |
+-------------------------------------------+--------+------------+------------+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
| watchdog                                  | MyISAM | Dynamic    |      63058 |            210 | 636.42242813 | 607.72516251 | 28.69726563 |
| cache_menu                                | MyISAM | Dynamic    |        145 |         124892 |  25.33553696 |  25.32577133 |  0.00976563 |
| search_index                              | MyISAM | Dynamic    |     472087 |             36 |  23.40134048 |  16.30759048 |  7.09375000 |
| comments                                  | MyISAM | Dynamic    |      98272 |            208 |  21.83272934 |  19.58272934 |  2.25000000 |

Investigating the content of the ‘watchdog’ table shows detailed logging. Drilling down just on the key ‘type’ records shows the following.

mysql> select message,count(*) from watchdog where type='page not found' group by message order by 2 desc limit 10;
+--------------------------------------+----------+
| message                              | count(*) |
+--------------------------------------+----------+
| content/images/loadingAnimation.gif  |    17198 |
| see/images/loadingAnimation.gif      |     6659 |
| images/loadingAnimation.gif          |     6068 |
| node/images/loadingAnimation.gif     |     2774 |
| favicon.ico                          |     1772 |
| sites/all/modules/coppa/coppa.js     |      564 |
| users/images/loadingAnimation.gif    |      365 |
| syndicate/google-analytics.com/ga.js |      295 |
| content/img_pos_funny_lowsrc.gif     |      230 |
| content/google-analytics.com/ga.js   |      208 |
+--------------------------------------+----------+
10 rows in set (2.42 sec)

Some 25% of rows is just the reporting one missing file. Correcting this one file cuts down a pile of unnecessary logging.

Repeating Queries

Looking at just 1 random second of SQL logging shows 1200+ SELECT statements.
355 are SELECT changed FROM node

$ grep would_you_rather drupal.1second.log
              7 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              5 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              3 Query       SELECT field_image_textarea_value AS value FROM content_type_would_you_rather WHERE vid = 24303 LIMIT 0, 1
              4 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              6 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
             10 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              9 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              8 Query       SELECT changed FROM node WHERE type='would_you_rather' AND STATUS=1 ORDER BY created DESC LIMIT 1
              9 Query       SELECT field_image_textarea_value AS value FROM content_type_would_you_rather WHERE vid = 24303 LIMIT 0, 1

There is plenty of information regarding monitoring the Slow Queries in MySQL, but I have also promoted that’s it not the slow queries that ultimately slow a system down, but the 1000’s of repeating fast queries.

MySQL of course has the Query Cache to assist, but this is a course grade solution, and a high volume read/write environment this is meaningless.

There is a clear need for either a application level caching, or a database redesign to pull rather then poll this information, however without more in depth review of Drupal I can not make any judgment calls.

Best Practices in Migrating to MySQL

This week I was the invited speaker to give a 4 hr presentation to the Federal Government Sector in Washington DC on “Best Practices in Migrating to MySQL“. This was a followup to my day long “MySQL for the Oracle DBA Bootcamp” which I presented in Washington DC last year. It was good to see a number of attendees from my first DC presentation.

There was good attendance across various government departments and companies providing services to the government sector, as well a variety of job descriptions.

Thanks to Carahsoft and Sun/MySQL for organizing and sponsoring the event. Thanks also to Phil Hildebrand who provided fantastic support during my preparation answering all my SQL Server questions.

Thanks also to Baron Schwartz creator of Maatkit who as my invited guest was nice enough to table a list of attendee questions, which is always a good reference for revising slides and writing more blog posts.

You can find the first of seven sessions online in my presentations section.

Updated
Thanks to Baron Schwartz for his follow-up blog posts Migrating US Government applications from Oracle to MySQL and 50 things to know before migrating Oracle to MySQL.

Best practices for migrating applications to MySQL

In just over 2 weeks I’ll be the invited speaker in Washington DC to Best practices for migrating applications to MySQL. This workshop is being held in conjunction with Carahsoft and Sun/MySQL and aims to provide to the Federal sector valuable information for the continued usage and uptake of Open Source and specifically MySQL.

As part of my preparation I’m happy to hear from any organizations that have successfully migrated from Oracle/SQL Server/Informix/Sybase etc to MySQL and would like to be cited.

While I have been involved in the process I am also happy to hear of reasons why a migration failed, was aborted or postponed. This is all valuable information in determining what are the most ideal applications.

Extending the MySQL Data Landscape

Learn how to extend your existing MySQL based website to leverage the power of MySQL variants, AWS cloud based MySQL deployments and RDBMS alternatives. Evaluate how to integrate and use these different various technologies such as MySQL based variations KickFire, a column based optimization and InfoBright, a data warehousing solution. Understand the means of approach towards data synchronization between various database solutions in your business.

At the MySQL Meetup in New York this month, I spoke on “Extending the MySQL Data Landscape“. A MySQL centric view on an earlier work, “The Data Landscape” which I presented at a recent GoDaddy Tech Day.

,

Dependency error installing mylvmbackup on Ubuntu 8.04

I’ve started an investigation of MySQL Backups using LVM. I’m working with Lenz’s mylvmbackup but I found it both used Perl and needed a number of dependencies installed.

Installing dependencies failed on my test system, yet I found it actually worked when I went back to my dev system (but it is not configured with LVM for full testing).

$ sudo cpan Config::IniFiles Sys::Syslog Date::Format Getopt::Long  DBI

Details of error:

....
 CPAN.pm: Going to build S/SA/SAPER/Sys-Syslog-0.27.tar.gz

WARNING: LICENSE is not a known parameter.
Checking if your kit is complete...
Looks good
'LICENSE' is not a known MakeMaker parameter name.
Writing Makefile for Sys::Syslog
cp Syslog.pm blib/lib/Sys/Syslog.pm
/usr/bin/perl /usr/share/perl/5.8/ExtUtils/xsubpp -noprototypes -typemap /usr/share/perl/5.8/ExtUtils/typemap  Syslog.xs > Syslog.xsc && mv Syslog.xsc Syslog.c
cc -c   -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE -DTHREADS_HAVE_PIDS -DDEBIAN -fno-strict-aliasing -pipe -I/usr/local/include -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -O2   -DVERSION="0.27" -DXS_VERSION="0.27" -fPIC "-I/usr/lib/perl/5.8/CORE"  -DUSE_PPPORT_H Syslog.c
In file included from Syslog.xs:6:
/usr/lib/perl/5.8/CORE/perl.h:420:24: error: sys/types.h: No such file or directory
/usr/lib/perl/5.8/CORE/perl.h:451:19: error: ctype.h: No such file or directory
/usr/lib/perl/5.8/CORE/perl.h:463:23: error: locale.h: No such file or directory
/usr/lib/perl/5.8/CORE/perl.h:480:20: error: setjmp.h: No such file or directory

Some searching was necessary to find this thread and confirm that my prod server did not have a correct dev package.

apt-get install libc6-dev

NOTE: While the doc refers to the module File::Basename, trying to install this throws an error which when you investigate further is a false positive. The README does refer to this being normally part of the default perl installation.

Using Flipper to manage MySQL Pairs

As discussed previously in Options using MySQL pairs I have started evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of various open source options. This is an evaluation of Flipper, a product from Proven Scaling a MySQL consulting organization.

Overall

  • Pros When correctly configured and with a working installation it just works, simple and functional, which is good design.
  • Cons The functionality is incomplete especially when it comes to edge cases, additional manual scripting especially for MySQL specifics is necessary and could have be easily added.

The Flipper documentation is detailed, but I found the implementation could have been easier without reading most of the documentation first. The software comes in RPM packages, but as I’m using Ubuntu, installation is via source.

The documentation however assumes your Master/Fail Over master MySQL environment is already correctly configured, and running with Virtual IP’s and the correct read_only status. There is no information for configuration here, so you need to be comfortable with MySQL Replication before starting.

The default notification of IP addresses is managed by arping. Under Ubuntu 8.04 this actually throws an error for a virtual IP on the same host and then Flipper fails to operate as designed. I spent some time to diagnose the problem first before submitting to the flipper-devel list. The response was prompt, the recommendation was to actually use Linux Heatbeat for the purposes of the address notification. The installation of this was easy, via apt-get and the configuration change to Flipper a single row meta data change in one table, which showed good design in this flexibility.

Overall however, Flipper is only a partial solution. It lacked some functionality I just expected would be included in the initial version. The ability to set read_only on a server, Flipper handles this for a controlled failover, but not for just setting against the read only host. There is no means of starting a MySQL slave using the Flipper CLI, you need to do this again manually with additional scripts.

Overall, while a level of information feedback is available, and controlled failover of a correctly working and configured environment works great, manual steps are necessary in the “not ideal” case, when the tool could offer more.

Some points in addition to the supplied documentation.

  • The ‘flipper’ user may only need SELECT privileges to the necessary meta data tables, but it requires ‘SUPER’ privilege for SLAVE management.
  • Installation of arping necessary with ‘sudo apt-get install arping’
  • The arping command syntax needs to be updated for Ubunutu to ”/usr/sbin/arping -I $sendarp_interface -c 5 $sendarp_ip’ ‘. The path and options change. See 2.5.2 ARP sending command. You also need to adjust the Sudo Privileges for the command

Using Heatbeat

The solution to the ‘arping’ problem was to actually use a different command, send_arp which is part of Heatbeat. It’s ironic that Heatbeat is an entire product that could be used for managing pairs. However the following did work.

sudo apt-get install heartbeat
# Install fails consistently on 8.04, following needed
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install heatbeat
# Weird but necessary
INSERT INTO masterpair (masterpair, name, value) VALUES
  ('pairname', 'broadcast', '192.168.2.255');
UPDATE masterpair SET value="/usr/lib/heartbeat/send_arp -p /tmp/send_arp.pid -i 100 -r 5 $sendarp_interface $sendarp_ip auto $sendarp_broadcast $sendarp_netmask" WHERE masterpair="pairname" AND name="send_arp_command";

Bugs

As a result of this, I found at least one bug. With the send_arp_command you can specifiy $sendarp_broadcast as an argument in the value, however when you do, if the variable is not set, there should be a configuration error in Flipper, rather then it attempting to execute a remote SSH command with the variable undefined which causes an error, but could if not support the write variable protection cause other issues depending on syntax used.

Annoyances

1. One annoying thing was unnecessary stderr for SSH connections under Ubuntu, you can fix by doing a 2>/dev/null to address it. It was however useful in debugging to see the number of SSH connections, and then it help find the ‘arping’ issue, but in general it’s annoying, for example.

./flipper developer swap
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.187 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.
Connection to 192.168.2.181 closed.

2. The slave is listed first, you just automatically think master/slave, the output should be formatted in this though.

./flipper developer status 2>/dev/null
MASTERPAIR: developer
NODE: beta181 has read IP, is read-only, replication running, 0s delay
NODE: alpha187 has write IP, is writable, replication running, 0s delay

3. No information after swap. When you do a swap, it would be good for the status to be shown. You are only going to run this command anyway to confirm.

Enhancements

I started working on modifying the ‘flipper’ script to support a read_only command, but I only had 1 day and ran out of time to finish.

Where is the innovation?

The 2009 MySQL Conference has closed it’s submissions for papers. This year the motto is “Innovation Everywhere”.

Last weekend’s Open SQL Camp in Charlottesville, Virginia, we had the chance to talk about the movements in the MySQL ecosystem. I was impressed to get the details of the Percona MySQL Patches, but focus is still in 5.0. (Welcome to the Percona team Tom Basil) Our Delta is attempting now to integrate patches into various MySQL branches. There was an opening keynote by Brian Aker from Drizzle, and Drizzle team Jay Pipes and Stewart Smith on hand. It was also announced that MySQL 5.1.30 will be GA, available in early December.

But these are not innovations that are ground breaking. Last year, it was the announcement of KickFire that I found most intriguing regarding innovation.

What is there this year?. The most interesting thing I read last week was Memcached as a L2 Cache for Innodb – The Waffle Grid Project. This is my kind of innovation. It’s sufficiently MySQL, but just adds another dimension with another companion technology. The patch seems relatively simple in concept and code size, and I’m almost prepared to fire up a few EC2’s to take this one for a spin. I’m doubly impressed because the creators are two friends and colleagues that are not hard core kernel hackers, but professionals on the front line dealing with clients daily. Will it be successful, or viable? That is the question about innovation.

Unfortunately I spend more time these days not seeing innovation in MySQL, but in other alternative database solutions in general. Projects like Clustrix, Inc., LucidDB, and Mongo in the 10gen stack.