Looking for MySQL 4.1

I had need today to download a version of MySQL 4.1 to test something. The MySQL Developer Zone archives no longer provides any software before 5.0.

While this may have long reached EOL and is no longer support, customers still do run this version of MySQL.

Anybody that can help out with binaries (on several OS’s), it would be appreciated.

SPOF Internet

SPOF (i.e. Single Point of Failure) is the bane for technologists. Avoiding SPOF generally requires redundancy, and redundancy has a cost, often more then a business is prepared to pay. In the database field, I see this regularly and advise clients on how to improve availability and potential avoid disasters that can affect their business.

Today, at approximately 10:30am, the Con Edison work crew in front of my home (digging a 5″ deep trench down the road), severed multiple Time Warner Cable fibre connections. ($#&* and the lack of ownership to correct timely is another story). No Internet, no ability to work actively with clients (which I was doing), etc, etc.

As an individual that works from home, I have recognized this SPOF and have redundancy in place. That is, a Verizon MiFi HotSpot, normally used for travel, but a backup in times of Internet downtime to my home. The moral here is, one level of redundancy is often not enough, just as MySQL replication is not a backup solution, only one part thereof, my backup redundancy was in maintenance mode (in this case loaned to a good overseas friend that is visiting and traveling in the US). Disaster often strikes unexpectedly, and often causes multiple failures, this being an example of a cascading failure in my Internet redundancy procedures.

The fact that I am writing this post, shows that I have a second backup, that is a portable WiFi hotspot on my T-Mobile phone. It’s not great, but it is an emergency.

This is not a satisfactory solution long term. My first estimate for repairs was September 17th. Even after stressing that was unsatisfactory, my second estimate is still unacceptable for my business.

Amen, to co-working spaces in New York. The ability to work at a location for a fixed daily/weekly/monthly cost. It pays to know where they are, and have an informal relationship for such an emergency. While inconvenient, I can take a laptop and have power and Internet to work for some core hours in the day, again far less then ideal.

For those that have actually decided to read this far, the moral of the story is this. What is your plan when this happens to your business connection, or your primary MySQL database server? What is acceptable downtime, and how to address correcting issues outside of your control (e.g. An explosion in a data center taking out 15,000 servers, which has happened to me, or damage to the 5 servers you have, all in a single rack). With practically every client, there is not a defined plan in the event of a disaster. There should be.

MySQL client password security

In case you missed it, MySQL 5.6.6, also known as Milestone 9, was recently released. I have yet to install this, however just one part of the MySQL 5.6.6 Release Notes makes placing installing and testing high on my TODO list.

Updated 20 Sep, 2012. Be sure to also read Todd’s post Understanding mysql_config_editor’s security aspects about a more in-depth and accurate description of this new feature. In summary, “It makes secure access via MySQL client applications easier to use”.

That is the reported improvements in password management. From the release notes:

Security Improvements

These security improvements were implemented:

MySQL now provides a method for storing authentication credentials securely in an option file named .mylogin.cnf. To create the file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. The file can be read later by MySQL client programs to obtain authentication credentials for connecting to a MySQL server. mysql_config_editor writes the .mylogin.cnf file using encryption so the credentials are not stored as clear text, and its contents when decrypted by client programs are used only in memory. In this way, passwords can be stored in a file in non-cleartext format and used later without ever needing to be exposed on the command line or in an environment variable. This improves security for interactive use of MySQL client programs, as well as security for noninteractive tasks that require a MySQL password from a file. For more information, see Section 4.6.6, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.

The .mylogin.cnf file can contain multiple sets of options, known as “login paths.” To specify which option group to use from the .mylogin.cnf file for connecting to the server, use the –login-path option. See Section 4.2.3.4, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

There are additional improvements and modifications around encryption. Well worth reading about in MySQL 5.6.6 Release Notes.

When is a crashing MySQL bug not a bug?

Answer: When Oracle acknowledges the bug in 5.5.25 (to the owner only), corrects the bug in 5.5.27 (to the owner only), yet hides all information of its existence.

Recently a colleague and good friend discovered a bug in MySQL 5.5 replication that would crash MySQL. This was initially reported as Bug #65740, and after a lot of back and forth, a reproducible test case was found. Excellent work on the part of my colleague to spend the time to clearly identify the specific conditions. I remember looking at this initial thread in detail for an UPDATE statement using variables combined with an –ignore-database configuration option.

For no explanation by Oracle, this bug was subsequently marked as private (after I originally viewed the thread publicly), corrected, and the corrected bug is not referenced in the 5.5.27 Release Notes, yet the private bug clearly states.

[20 Jul 11:59] XXXX
Fixed in 5.1.65/5.5.27.

The reason why I raise this concern is due to the lack of consistency. Why this was not included in the Release Notes is not acceptable in my view. However, the installation of 5.2.25 was needed to address another obscure Bug #45670 that was corrected and remains open to the MySQL Community.

I do not know of [yet] a public statement by Oracle that details why certain information about MySQL is open, and certain information is closed.

Recent Presentations in Cali, Colombia

On July 4 I gave two presentations at the OTN Tour Day, and on July 5 I have three presentations at the MySQL Training Days. This was my 3rd visit to Colombia and it was great to see a receptive audience. Thanks to Robin for organizing the events in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

You can download all presentations from the provided links.

New security fixes for MySQL reported

6 new security fixes for Oracle MySQL have been detailed in the most current Oracle Critical Patch Update (CPU).

These are:

  • CVE-2012-1735 (5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-0540 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-1757 (5.5.23 and earlier )
  • CVE-2012-1756 (5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-1734 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier )
  • CVE-2012-1689 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.22 and earlier )

Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply CPU fixes as soon as possible. Unfortunately there is no easy description for MySQL users what that really entails. There is a reference to Critical Patch Update July 2012 Patch Delivery Document for Oracle Sun Products Suite My Oracle Support Note 1446033.1, however all the information is behind having a support license. There appears to be no information easily available for the community users.

A full description of these CVEs can be found here. Unfortunately most say Vulnerability in the MySQL Server component of Oracle MySQL (subcomponent: Server). Supported versions that are affected are 5.5.23 and earlier. Easily exploitable vulnerability allows successful authenticated network attacks via multiple protocols. Successful attack of this vulnerability can result in unauthorized ability to cause a hang or frequently repeatable crash (complete DOS) of MySQL Server. which is effectively useless information.

There is external information that can be found at the National Vulnerability Database (not linked in the Oracle article). For example http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2012-1735 however this does not provide any more meaningful information either.

There was a recent 5.5.25a released on 2012-07-05, however this, 5.5.25, 5.5.24, and the yet to be released 5.5.26 release notes provide no information about these security issues.

While security is important for a database and system administrator, on first inspection the information provided does not offer an easy way to assess the risk and take appropriate actions.

More information at

I will be speaking at Percona Live New York

Percona Live New York City, October 1 - 2, 2012
Percona is back for a second New York Percona Live Conference. As the resident New York MySQL Expert, I will again be presenting. My session will be on MySQL Backup and Recovery Essentials.

You can only present so much in one hour, and this presentation just touches on the highlights of what is possible. More detailed information about the right backup and recovery strategy and associated tools is available in my current book Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery.

Encrypting your MySQL backups and more

Assuming you have a backup and recovery strategy in place, how secure is your data? Does a hacker need to obtain access to your production system bypassing all the appropriate security protection you have in place, or just the unencrypted data on the backup server?

Encryption with zNcrypt

The following steps demonstrate how I setup a mysqldump encrypted backup with zNcrypt, a product from Gazzang. You can request a free trial evaluation of the software from http://gazzang.com/request-a-trial. I asked for a AWS EC2 instance, and was able to provide my bootstrap instructions for OS and MySQL installation. Following installation and configuration, the first step is to verify the zNcrypt process is running:

$ sudo ezncrypt-service status
  ezncrypt | Checking system dependencies
** ezncrypt system is UP and running **
       log | File: /var/log/ezncrypt/ezncrypt-service.log

If the process is not running you would find the following error message:

$ sudo ezncrypt-service status
  ezncrypt | Checking system dependencies
** ezncrypt system is NOT running **
       log | File: /var/log/ezncrypt/ezncrypt-service.log

$ sudo ezncrypt-service start
  ezncrypt | Checking system dependencies
  ezncrypt | checking encryption directories
    keymgr | Retrieving key from KSS
           |  > Encryption password retrieved from KSS
  ezncrypt | starting service
           |  > using "aes_256" cipher algorithm
           | done!
    access | Loading access control list
           | done!
  ezncrypt | Thank you for using ezncrypt.
       log | File: /var/log/ezncrypt/ezncrypt-service.log

Under the covers you will find the following attached devices, and no actual processes.

$ df -h
Filesystem ...
...
/var/lib/ezncrypt/storage/encrypted_private
/var/lib/ezncrypt/ezncrypted

$ ps -ef | grep ezn
uid  4947  3327  0 23:15 pts/3    00:00:00 grep ezn

$ ps -ef | grep cry
root        30     2  0 21:41 ?        00:00:00 [ecryptfs-kthrea]
root        31     2  0 21:41 ?        00:00:00 [crypto]
uid  4951  3327  0 23:15 pts/3    00:00:00 grep cry

The first step is to create a backup directory and encrypt all contents that are placed in the directory. ezNcrypt uses the concept of an @category for reference with an encrypted file or directory.

$ mkdir /mysql/backup/encrypted
$ sudo ezncrypt --encrypt @backup /mysql/backup/encrypted
  ezncrypt | Checking system dependencies
           | Verifying ezncrypt license
           | getting information about location
           |   > path: /var/lib/ezncrypt/ezncrypted/backup
  ezncrypt | Checking encryption status
           | done!
    keymgr | Retrieving key from KSS
           |  > Encryption password retrieved from KSS
           | generating keys
           | done!
    backup | backing up data
           | This can take a while. Please be patient
           |  > backing up /mysql/backup/encrypted
           |  > File: /opt/ezncrypt/backup/2012-04-27/encrypted.tar.gz
           | done!
  ezncrypt | encrypting files
           |  > checking disk space
           |  > encrypting /mysql/backup/encrypted
           | done!
  ezncrypt | congratulations. you have encrypted your Files!!
       log | File: /var/log/ezncrypt/ezncrypt.log

The underlying regular directory is now replaced:

$ ls -l /mysql/backup
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 59 2012-04-27 00:03 encrypted -> /var/lib/ezncrypt/ezncrypted/backup//mysql/backup/encrypted

Any attempts to write to this encrypted directory will now fail, even with the Linux super user:

$ mysqldump --all-databases > /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql
-bash: /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql: Permission denied

$ sudo mysqldump --all-databases > /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql
-bash: /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql: Permission denied

In order to read and write from an encrypted directory you need to grant access controls to a given program, for example mysqldump:

$ sudo ezncrypt-access-control -a "ALLOW @backup * /usr/bin/mysqldump"
passphrase:
salt:
Rule added

You verify the defined access control rules with:

$ sudo ezncrypt-access-control -L
passphrase:
salt:
# -  Type     Category       Path    Process
1    ALLOW    @backup        *       /usr/bin/mysqldump

However, writing with mysqldump still causes an error because it is the shell redirection that is performing the writing, as seen in the system error log:

$ mysqldump --all-databases > /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql
-bash: /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump1.sql: Permission denied
$ dmesg | tail
[4138848.618559] ezncryptfs: DENIED type="acl" exec="/bin/bash" script="/dev/pts/4" comm="bash" path="/var/lib/ezncrypt/ezncrypted/backup" pid=7448 uid=1000

You can use the –result-file option with mysqldump to enable the process to create the file directly. For example:

$ time mysqldump --all-databases   --result-file=/mysql/backup/encrypted/edump2.sql
real      1m34.714s
user      0m59.388s
sys       0m9.589s

$ sudo ezncrypt-run "ls -l /mysql/backup/encrypted/"
passphrase:
salt:
total 3.0G
-rw-rw-r-- 1 uid gid 2.9G 2012-04-27 02:43 edump2.sql

In this single test, the transparent encryption added only a very nominal overhead to the mysqldump test backup used. You can easily extract the file from the encrypted directory, however that would defeat the purpose of using encryption. The following syntax is shown just to confirm the validity of the encrypted file:

$ sudo /usr/sbin/ezncrypt-run "cp /mysql/backup/encrypted/edump2.sql ."
passphrase:
salt:
$ ls –al edump*
total 3916
-rw-r--r-- 1 uid gid 2.9G 2012-04-27 02:55 edump2.sql


$ grep "^CREATE.*DATABASE" edump2.sql
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `book2` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 */;
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `employees` ...
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `musicbrainz` ...
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `mysql` ...
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `sakila` ...
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `world_innodb` ...
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `world_myisam` ...

When using correctly configured directories and access controls, the use is truly transparent to the backup process.

Restoring an encrypted file is a little more involved. The best approach is to create a script to perform the work, than encrypt this script. When executed, this script will have the permissions necessary to read and apply the encrypted file.

Perhaps the best tip about using this type of transparent encryption is that it is possible to encrypt the MySQL user and password securely in a plain text configuration file and used with appropriate MySQL client commands. This helps to address another common security problem.

What compression do you use?

The following is an evaluation of various compression utilities that I tested when reviewing the various options for MySQL backup strategies. The overall winner in performance was pigz, a parallel implementation of gzip. If you use gzip today as most organizations do, this one change will improve your backup compression times.

Details of the test:

  • The database is 5.4GB of data
  • mysqldump produces a backup file of 2.9GB
  • The server is an AWS t1.xlarge with a dedicated EBS volume for backups

The following testing was performed to compare the time and % compression savings of various available open source products. This was not an exhaustive test with multiple iterations and different types of data files.

Compression
Utility
Compression Time
(sec)
Decompression Time
(sec)
New Size
(% Saving)
lzo (-3) 21 34 1.5GB (48%)
pigz (-1) 43 33 995MB (64%)
pigz (-3) 56 34 967MB (67%)
gzip (-1) 81 43 995MB (64%)
fastlz 92 128 1.3GB (55%)
pigz [-6] 105 25 902MB (69%)
gzip (-3) 106 43 967MB (67%)
compress 145 36 1.1GB (62%)
pigz (-9) 202 23 893MB (70%)
gzip [-6] 232 78 902MB (69%)
zip 234 50 902MB (69%)
gzip (-9) 405 43 893MB (70%)
bzip2 540 175 757MB (74%)
rzip 11 minutes 360 756MB (74%)
lzo (-9) 20 minutes 82 1.2GB (58%)
7z 33 minutes 122 669MB (77%)
lzip 47 minutes 132 669MB (77%)
lzma 58 minutes 180 639MB (78%)
xz 59 minutes 160 643MB (78%)

Observations

  • The percentage savings and compression time of results will vary depending on the type of data that is stored in the MySQL database.
  • The pigz compression utility was the surprising winner in best compression time producing at least a size of gzip. This was a full 50% faster than gzip.
  • For this compression tests, only one large file was used. Some utilities work much better with many smaller files.

Find our more information of these tests and the results in Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery

Recent Presentations Buenos Aires MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference

The first annual Latin America MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference was held in Buenos Aires Argentina from June 26-28. Kudos to Santiago Lertora from Binlogic who had the vision for the conference in his country and made it happen. I look forward to the second annual event.

My first presentation was “Improving Performance with Better Indexes”. This presentation details the six steps to SQL performance analysis, Capture, Identify, Confirm, Analyze, Optimize and Verify. An explanation of MySQL EXPLAIN, and working examples to create indexes and better covering indexes in several examples are provided. A production example of a 13 table join is used to detail how covering indexes and partial column indexes can make a dramatic improvement in performance. Download Presentation (PDF).

More detailed information about EXPLAIN and creating indexes is available in book Effective MySQL: Optimizing SQL Statements.

My second presentation was “MySQL Backup and Recovery Essentials”. This presentation covers the most common options for MySQL backup and the respective restore options. Also covered is the importance of the master binary logs and point in time recovery capabilities. Download Presentation (PDF)

More detailed information about the right backup and recovery strategy and associated tools is available in book Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery.

References

Latin America MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference Program.

Upcoming MySQL Connect Presentations


The MySQL Connect 2012 conference event being held in San Francisco on Sep 29-30 has a long list of quality MySQL speakers including myself. I will be giving 2 presentations on:

CON8322 – Lessons from Managing 500+ MySQL Instances

In this presentation, learn about the issues of managing a large number of instances of MySQL, supporting 50 billion SQL statements per day. Topics covered:
• The need for monitoring and instrumentation
• How to automate installations, upgrades, and deployments
• Issues with MySQL’s Replication feature with 300 slaves per master
• Traffic minimization techniques
• Creating high availability with regions and zones
• Real-time traffic stats (aggregated every five seconds)

CON8320 – Improving Performance with Better Indexes

Learn how to use one simple advanced technique to make better indexes in MySQL and improve your queries by 500 percent or more. Even with a highly indexed schema, you can achieve significant improvements in performance by creating better indexes. This presentation introduces an approach to correct identification and verification of problem SQL statements and then describes the means of identifying index choices for optimization. Then it discusses not only how to apply indexes to improve query performance but also how to apply better indexes and provide even greater performance gains.

You can also read more information with my Interview about MySQL Connect.

Recent Presentations at Charlotte South East LinuxFest

At the recent South East LinuxFest in June 2012 I gave two MySQL presentations.

The first was on Explaining the MySQL Explain. This presentation details the MySQL Query Execution Plan (QEP) of an SQL statement and how to understand and interpret the information from the EXPLAIN command. Also discussed are additional commands and tools that exist to add supplementary information. These are essential skills that will be used daily in production operations. Download Presentation (PDF)

Effective MySQL: Optimizing SQL StatementsMore detailed information about EXPLAIN and associated commands is available in book Effective MySQL: Optimizing SQL Statements.

Effective MySQL:Backup and Recovery
The second was on MySQL Disasters, and how to avoid yours. Organizations are always making improvements for scalability, however disaster preparedness is the poor cousin. This presentation will show you how to easily avoid the most common MySQL disaster situations.
Backup and recovery is critical for business continuity, many websites run the risk of data loss or corruption because existing procedures (if any) are generally flawed.
Download Presentation (PDF

More detailed information about the right backup and recovery strategy and associated tools is available in book Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery.

References

South East Linux Fest Agenda

REPOST: A Tragically Comedic Security Flaw in MySQL

“In short, if you try to authenticate to a MySQL server affected by this flaw, there is a chance it will accept your password even if the wrong one was supplied. The following one-liner in bash will provide access to an affected MySQL server as the root user account, without actually knowing the password.”

$ for i in `seq 1 1000`; do mysql -u root --password=bad -h 127.0.0.1 2>/dev/null; done
mysql>

The following are confirmed distributions that are vulnerable:

  • Ubuntu Linux 64-bit ( 10.04, 10.10, 11.04, 11.10, 12.04 ) ( via many including @michealc )
  • OpenSuSE 12.1 64-bit MySQL 5.5.23-log ( via @michealc )
  • Debian Unstable 64-bit 5.5.23-2 ( via @derickr )
  • Fedora ( via hexed and confirmed by Red Hat )
  • Arch Linux (unspecified version)

Full details can be found at https://community.rapid7.com/community/metasploit/blog/2012/06/11/cve-2012-2122-a-tragically-comedic-security-flaw-in-mysql

The black vodka MySQL tradition

Many do not need any further introduction to this Monty tradition at MySQL events. For the New York Effective MySQL Meetup group this was a new experience for many that I had the opportunity to share at our recent meeting. In 12 months the group has grown to over 280 members, and now recent attendees have experienced black vodka first hand.

A special thanks to Monty Program AB and Colin Charles for providing the alcohol.


South America Speaking Events

Following my 2 presentations at SouthEast LinuxFest on Friday and Open DB Camp on Sunday in Charlotte, NC, I will then be speaking at the first Latin America MySQL event in Buenos Aires, Argentina later this month. This will include at least six MySQL Alumni and key presentations from MariaDB and Tokutek.

I will then be attending the OTN Tour 2012 event in Cali, Colombia the following week and also a dedicated 2 day MySQL Training Days following.

UTF-8 with MySQL and LAMP

A recent question on a mailing list was the best practices for UTF-8 and PHP/MySQL. The following are the configurations I used in my multi-language projects.

MySQL UTF-8 Configuration

# my.cnf
[mysqld]
default_character_set = utf8
character_set_client       = utf8
character_set_server       = utf8
[client]
default_character_set = utf8

PHP UTF-8 Configuration

#php.ini
default_charset = "utf-8"

Apache UTF-8 Configuration

#httpd.conf
AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
<VirtualHost>
    AddCharset UTF-8   .htm
</VirtualHost>

HTML file UTF-8 Configuration

 <meta charset="utf-8">

PHP file UTF-8 Configuration

header('Content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8');

MySQL connection (extra precaution)

SET NAMES utf8;

Shell UTF-8

And last but not least, even editing files in shell can be affected (.e.g UTF-8 data to be inserted into DB from file). Ensure at least

#~/.profile
export LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8
export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

Amateurs – They give us professionals a bad name

Any person with half a brain would see from the error messages below that the MySQL server is not operating optimally, or more specifically the MySQL upgrade has not completely successfully and let users can go happily use the website. It amazing me when web hosting providers tell their paying client that an upgrade has been performed yet they did not have the intelligence to actually look at the error log for confirmation. Got a mysql> prompt, it’s all good. One of the first things I check is the error log.

When will people learn the MySQL error log is a valuable resource both for what it contains, and what it should not contain.

120426 17:36:00 [Note] /usr/libexec/mysqld: Shutdown complete

120426 17:36:00 mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid ended
120426 17:36:00 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /var/lib/mysql
120426 17:36:00 [Note] Plugin 'FEDERATED' is disabled.
/usr/libexec/mysqld: Table 'mysql.plugin' doesn't exist
120426 17:36:00 [ERROR] Can't open the mysql.plugin table. Please run mysql_upgrade to create it.
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: Using Linux native AIO
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
120426 17:36:00 InnoDB: highest supported file format is Barracuda.
120426 17:36:00  InnoDB: Waiting for the background threads to start
120426 17:36:01 InnoDB: 1.1.8 started; log sequence number 232577699
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Missing system table mysql.proxies_priv; please run mysql_upgrade to create it
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Can't open and lock privilege tables: Table 'mysql.servers' doesn't exist
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_current' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_history' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_history_long' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'setup_consumers' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'setup_instruments' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'setup_timers' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'performance_timers' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'threads' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_summary_by_instance' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'file_summary_by_event_name' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'file_summary_by_instance' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'mutex_instances' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'rwlock_instances' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'cond_instances' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'file_instances' has the wrong structure
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Column count of mysql.db is wrong. Expected 22, found 20. Created with MySQL 50077, now running 50523. Please use mysql_upgrade to fix this error.
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] mysql.user has no `Event_priv` column at position 29
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Cannot open mysql.event
120426 17:36:01 [ERROR] Event Scheduler: An error occurred when initializing system tables. Disabling the Event Scheduler.
120426 17:36:01 [Note] /usr/libexec/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '5.5.23-cll'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  MySQL Community Server (GPL) by Atomicorp
120426 17:46:01 [ERROR] Missing system table mysql.proxies_priv; please run mysql_upgrade to create it
120426 17:46:01 [ERROR] Can't open and lock privilege tables: Table 'mysql.servers' doesn't exist
120426 17:46:01 [ERROR] Column count of mysql.proc is wrong. Expected 20, found 16. Created with MySQL 50077, now running 50523. Please use mysql_upgrade to fix this error.

Some more light reading at Have you checked your MySQL error log today? and Monitoring MySQL – The error log

I want a mysqldump –ignore-database option

While working with RDS and Google Cloud SQL I have come to realize that excluding the mysql schema from a mysqldump is important. However with many databases, the –all-databases option enables you only to select all or none. There is however an easy solution to exclude one or more databases in mysqldump with this little gem I created.

$ time mysqldump --databases `mysql --skip-column-names -e "SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(schema_name SEPARATOR ' ') FROM information_schema.schemata WHERE schema_name NOT IN ('mysql','performance_schema','information_schema');" >` >/mysql/backup/rds2.sql

An you can exclude as many schemas as you want.

I checked the mysqldump –help, there was no option in MySQL 5.1, asked a colleague just to be sure I wasn’t wasting my time, and it took all of 2 minutes to create and test a working solution.

When is a database schema not a database schema?

mysql> show schemas;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| innodb             |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> drop schema innodb;
ERROR 1010 (HY000): Error dropping database (can't rmdir './innodb/', errno: 17)

This is an additional schema that is included in an AWS RDS installation. You should not put directories in the MySQL data directory.

An excellent conference (5 out of 5 stars)

I wanted to extend thanks as others have also about the excellent annual MySQL Conference, now a Percona Live event. This was easily the best run, attended and energetic event in at least the past 3 years. With over a 1000 attendees a well stocked exhibitors hall (and good involvement in the hall), and good talks; there was just a great community vibe. To Terry, Kortney and all Percona staff involved, well done. The event ran on time, I personally did not see or hear of any issues. The only complaint was from many that wanted to attend multiple talks at the same time, another indication of the quality of speakers for the event.

Thank you to those that attended my two sessions on Explaining the MySQL Explain and MySQL Idiosyncrasies that BITE. Many people thanked me after presentations, along also with people coming up to me to say they appreciated the first book of the Effective MySQL Series. My desires to speak and write are only for the benefit of the MySQL community to hopefully learn and appreciate how to best use MySQL.

It was of course great to see many MySQL alumni, and old friends I have seen since meeting at my first MySQL conference in 2006.

MySQL now has two user conferences (*)

PC World has written a post with this title(*) about the upcoming MySQL Connect conference and references the Percona Live conference and an official Percona comment. As this is not syndicated in Planet MySQL I encourage you to read the full article.

This is the MySQL conference to get technical presentations by the many great Oracle/MySQL technical staff who will not be in attendance at Percona Live. There will also be a strong community presence in speaking at Oracle Connect in September. While Oracle was organizing a dedicated MySQL event in April for the community with all vendors including Percona to replace the conference dropped by long term partner O’Reilly (kudos for many years of great events), Percona decided to go at it without including Oracle, the owners and developers of MySQL. The statement quoted in the PC World article regarding “lack of momentum around the [annual community] event” is clearly inaccurate and not a true representation of actual events.

It is difficult to keep up with all the community events Oracle is now running including multiple OTN MySQL Developer days per month across the US and Europe. I will be speaking at the upcoming OTN NY event in April, the Rocky Mountain Training Day in May, and hopefully the MySQL Innovation day in June. Get the full list at Upcoming MySQL Events.

Indeed MySQL content and presentations have also been represented at Oracle Open World for a number of years. 2011 was a very large turnout and many MySQL presentations. As a senior consultant for MySQL Inc I manned a MySQL booth at OOW exhibition hall back in 2007, prior to both Sun and Oracle acquisitions.

SQL_MODE and storage engines

I was again reminded why setting SQL_MODE is so important in any new MySQL environment. While performing benchmark tests on parallel backup features with a common InnoDB tablespace and per file tablespace, I inadvertently missed an important step in the data migration. The result was the subsequent test that performed data population worked without any issues however there was no data in any InnoDB tables.

These are the steps used in the migration of InnoDB tables from a common tablespace model to a per-table tablespace model.

  1. Dump all InnoDB tables
  2. Drop all InnoDB tables
  3. Shutdown MySQL
  4. Change the my.cnf to include innodb-file-per-table
  5. Remove the InnoDB ibdata1 tablespace file
  6. Remove the InnoDB transactional log files
  7. Start MySQL
  8. Verify the error log
  9. Create and load new InnoDB tables

However, step 6 was not performed correctly due to a sudo+shell wildcard issue. The result was MySQL started, and tables were subsequently created incorrectly. What should have happened was:

mysql> CREATE TABLE `album` (
    ->   `album_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
    ->   `artist_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
    ->   `album_type_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
    ->   `name` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    ->   `first_released` year(4) NOT NULL,
    ->   `country_id` smallint(5) unsigned DEFAULT NULL,
    ->   PRIMARY KEY (`album_id`)
    -> ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
ERROR 1286 (42000): Unknown table engine 'InnoDB'

However, because by default MySQL will fallback to the legacy default of MyISAM, no actual error occurred. In order for this to produce an error, an appropriate SQL_MODE is necessary.

mysql> SET GLOBAL sql_mode='NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION';

A check of the MySQL error log shows why InnoDB was not available.

120309  0:59:36  InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
120309  0:59:40  InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 0 1087119693
120309  0:59:40 [Note] /usr/sbin/mysqld: Shutdown complete

120309  1:00:16 [Warning] No argument was provided to --log-bin, and --log-bin-index was not used; so replication may break when this MySQL server acts as a master and has his hostname changed!! Please use '--log-bin=ip-10-190-238-14-bin' to avoid this problem.
120309  1:00:16 [Note] Plugin 'FEDERATED' is disabled.
120309  1:00:16  InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 500.0M
120309  1:00:16  InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
InnoDB: The first specified data file ./ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
120309  1:00:16  InnoDB: Setting file ./ibdata1 size to 64 MB
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Error: all log files must be created at the same time.
InnoDB: All log files must be created also in database creation.
InnoDB: If you want bigger or smaller log files, shut down the
InnoDB: database and make sure there were no errors in shutdown.
InnoDB: Then delete the existing log files. Edit the .cnf file
InnoDB: and start the database again.
120309  1:00:17 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' init function returned error.
120309  1:00:17 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' registration as a STORAGE ENGINE failed.
120309  1:00:17 [Note] Event Scheduler: Loaded 0 events
120309  1:00:17 [Note] /usr/sbin/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '5.1.58-1ubuntu1-log'  socket: '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock'  port: 3306  (Ubuntu)

NOTE: This was performed on Ubuntu using the standard distro MySQL version of MySQL 5.1.

As previously mentioned, SQL_MODE may not be perfect, however what features do exist warrant correctly configuration your MySQL environment not to use the default.

More Information.

IOUC Leaders Summit Presentation

At the recent leaders summit of world leaders in Oracle, Java and MySQL user communities I gave a presentation on Why Upgrade to MySQL 5.5

This is a more high level overview presentation, specifically designed for Oracle resources with little to no knowledge about MySQL, however it provides a great management approach to the consideration of using the current MySQL GA version.

I have a more detailed technical presentation from last year on Reasons to Use MySQL 5.5.

Why SQL_MODE is essential even when not perfect

In a recent rant on Why I think SQL_MODE is useless…, I wanted to counteract this statement with why we MUST all use SQL_MODE, even with the inherit flaws.

The fundamental principle of a database is to restore and retrieve data. When I can insert data into the database and then I select this data it is different, this is fundamentally wrong. This is a loss of essential data integrity, something a database should NEVER do.

SQL_MODE solves the problem of “silent truncation” in most instances, and produces an all important error. As pointed out, the SQL_MODE has several limitations, however the benefits do out way the risks. Quality control on source code can reduce the limitations, but no amount of coding can stop the CRUD that comes out of the database without some SQL_MODE settings.

I would ask two more important questions.

  1. How in the first place can such a critical feature of silent data truncation ever be permitted in MySQL? Who made that decision and why?
  2. When is the owner of MySQL codebase realize this is rather ridiculous and enforce essential minimual data integrity that can be obtain with options including STRICT_ALL_TABLES, NO_ZERO_DATE, NO_ZERO_IN_DATE and NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION.

References

Colorado MySQL Users Group Presentation

In addition to speaking at RMOUG event in Denver, I also spoke today in Broomfield on “Improving MySQL Performance with Better Indexes”.

This presentation included details on :

  • Effective examples of capture SQL via application logging and TCP/IP analysis necessary for identifying the best candidates. Slow is not always the best query to start with.
  • All the commands necessary to identify why you may need an index, how to create varying types of indexes, and how to confirm there true effectiveness.
  • How the number of table rows and different storage engines can greatly effect the optimization choice and query performance
  • The presentation shows how to determine/create and verify covering indexes for a single table example, a master/child example and a production 13 table join.

You can obtain the slides from Improving MySQL Performance With Better Indexes Presentation.

Event Details

MySQL Security Essentials Presentation

Today at the RMOUG Training Days 2012 event I gave an introduction presentation on MySQL Security Essentials covering the following topics:

  • MySQL Security defaults
  • MySQL Security Improvements
  • OS Security
  • User Privileges
  • Data Integrity
  • Installation Practices
  • Auditing Options
  • Better Security
  • Further References

Download slides for MySQL Security Essentials.

Determining consulting rates

It can be hard sometimes, particularly with startups to determine what to charge. I have tried various models over the years from nothing, to greatly reduced, to full-price. Nothing works well.

As one of the top consultants in MySQL, I kept my rates down as an individual to compete competitively with the 3 or 4 other companies world wide that provide relative services, this in the end hurt my bottom line.

I charge a premium rate that matches my skills, expertise and competitors. I charge that for all customers, large, small, old and new. When the value of my work in performance tuning, disaster management, scalability and architecture is offset by the loss of potential or future business it is not difficult to justify a reasonable rate. I also continue to speak extensively, write and publish materials that provides detailed practical knowledge for organizations and individuals that can invest the time, but not the money.

I am still shocked when large established companies want a discount, just last week for a few hours work a company wanted 33% off.

An extract from “3 Things Entrepreneurs Should Never Depend On When Starting A Company” provides a great re-enforcement about what is appropriate pricing.

Fearful Pricing

When I started my business, I undercharged for my service. I didn’t have the confidence to ask for a decent price, and I thought I had to have the lowest price in order to get business.

What did these practices get me? Low profits and poor cash flow.

In order to survive as a startup—both financially and mentally—it’s crucial that you make sure you’re receiving maximum reward for your maxed out efforts. If you don’t see the true value in your business, how do you expect your clients to do so? Your work is worth it; adjust your prices accordingly.

Read more: Business Insider

Exciting upcoming MySQL events

At the IOUC leaders’ summit in San Francisco this week, key leaders from Oracle, Java and MySQL user groups world wide have been meeting. This has included the key Oracle MySQL resources from the community, marketing and product teams. The Java User Groups and MySQL User Groups have been well represented and there has been very welcoming discussion with the IOUC about how we can become active within the Oracle Community.

There has been key discussions of upcoming and proposed MySQL events including the great outreach by the Oracle MySQL team with existing Open Source conferences this year including Scale, FOSDEM and South East Linuxfest just to name a few.

You can see the upcoming events at http://mysql.com/news-and-events/events/. In February alone there will be events in North Carolina, California, Texas, Frankfurt Germany and Stockholm Sweden. I will also be speaking in Denver at 2 events and Salt Lake City.

There is a much longer list then what is shown here, and we are working on getting the full list more available.

More info by Dave Stokes at SCaLE’s MySQL Day a big hit and Keith Larson More User Groups.