The following is an evaluation of various compression utilities that I tested when reviewing the various options for MySQL backup strategies. The overall winner in performance was pigz, a parallel implementation of gzip. If you use gzip today as most organizations do, this one change will improve your backup compression times.
Details of the test:
- The database is 5.4GB of data
- mysqldump produces a backup file of 2.9GB
- The server is an AWS t1.xlarge with a dedicated EBS volume for backups
The following testing was performed to compare the time and % compression savings of various available open source products. This was not an exhaustive test with multiple iterations and different types of data files.
|lzo (-3)||21||34||1.5GB (48%)|
|pigz (-1)||43||33||995MB (64%)|
|pigz (-3)||56||34||967MB (67%)|
|gzip (-1)||81||43||995MB (64%)|
|pigz [-6]||105||25||902MB (69%)|
|gzip (-3)||106||43||967MB (67%)|
|pigz (-9)||202||23||893MB (70%)|
|gzip [-6]||232||78||902MB (69%)|
|gzip (-9)||405||43||893MB (70%)|
|rzip||11 minutes||360||756MB (74%)|
|lzo (-9)||20 minutes||82||1.2GB (58%)|
|7z||33 minutes||122||669MB (77%)|
|lzip||47 minutes||132||669MB (77%)|
|lzma||58 minutes||180||639MB (78%)|
|xz||59 minutes||160||643MB (78%)|
- The percentage savings and compression time of results will vary depending on the type of data that is stored in the MySQL database.
- The pigz compression utility was the surprising winner in best compression time producing at least a size of gzip. This was a full 50% faster than gzip.
- For this compression tests, only one large file was used. Some utilities work much better with many smaller files.
Find our more information of these tests and the results in Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery
Jon V says
Nice writeup, I never bothered to test the majority of these. If you add to the list, I’d like to suggest giving pbzip2 a try (similiar to pigz, it’s a parallel implementation of bzip2). http://compression.ca/pbzip2/
Rob Smith says
I also came to the same conclusion.
My results are available at: http://www.kormoc.com/stuff/Compression%20Speeds.pdf
The machine is a 24 core Xeon(R) CPU X5650, 24 disk raid 1+0 on a 3ware 9650. We ended up using pigz -1 as the time increase over -1 was offset by the faster network transfer so the end time to remote target was lower but if we were on a 100 mbit network, pbzip2 -9 was the better choice.
Jouni "rautamiekka" Järvinen says
LZMA1 is good but mostly LZMA2, used by xz, beats it. This time LZMA1 won.
James Day says
For 7z were you using the PPMd compression method? See http://www.dotnetperls.com/ppmd if you’re not familiar with it.
Views are my own. for an official Oracle view, consult a PR person.
James Day, MYSQL Senior Principal Support Engineer, Oracle
xz -1 is much fast than default bzip2, about 90% times than default gzip, with almost same compress radio.
Thx for this test.
What about qpress ? (qpress is used in the latest XtraBackup release)